Please wait a minute...
Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine  2019, Vol. 20 Issue (4): 209-220     DOI: 10.31083/j.rcm.2019.04.548
Review Previous articles | Next articles
Epidemiology of cardiovascular risk in chronic kidney disease patients: the real silent killer
Michele Provenzano1, Giuseppe Coppolino1, *(), Teresa Faga1, Carlo Garofalo2, Raffaele Serra3, Michele Andreucci1
1 Department of Health Sciences, Renal Unit, "Magna Graecia" University, 88100 Catanzaro, Italy
2 Department of Scienze Mediche e Chirurgiche Avanzate, Renal Unit, University of Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli”, 80138 Naples, Italy
3 Interuniversity Center of Phlebolymphology (CIFL), “Magna Graecia” University, 88100 Catanzaro, Italy
Download:  PDF(1265KB)  ( 1103 ) Full text   ( 122 )
Export:  BibTeX | EndNote (RIS)      
Abstract:

Chronic kidney disease is a growing public health problem, as its prevalence and incidence have almost doubled over the last three decades. Chronic kidney disease is defined as the presence of an estimated glomerular filtration rate < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 and/or proteinuria ≥ 0.150 g/24 h. It has been demonstrated that both proteinuria and reduction in estimated glomerular filtration rate can predict the development of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular events, regardless of traditional cardiovascular risk factors, namely blood pressure, smoking habit, cholesterol, age, gender. This relationship is found in the general population, high-risk cohorts and in patients referred to Nephrologists (tertiary care). The accuracy by which proteinuria or estimated glomerular filtration rate can predict these events, exceeds that obtained by the combination of all the other traditional risk factors. These important findings have led to chronic kidney disease being considered as a cardiovascular risk equivalent. Although this needs further investigation, a great effort has been made to reduce the cardiovascular risk in chronic kidney disease patients. Indeed, many clinical trials have been carried-out testing the effect of antihypertensive, proteinuria-lowering, lipid-lowering and hypoglycemic agents on cardiovascular risk protection. All these trials reduced, but did not eliminate, the overall cardiovascular risk. Future studies should be undertaken to identify high cardiovascular risk patients and novel therapeutic targets for cardiovascular protection in chronic kidney disease patients.

Key words:  Epidemiology      cardiovascular risk      blood pressure      chronic kidney disease      statins      proteinuria      albuminuria     
Submitted:  06 August 2019      Accepted:  16 October 2019      Published:  30 December 2019     
*Corresponding Author(s):  Giuseppe Coppolino     E-mail:  gcoppolino@unicz.it

Cite this article: 

Michele Provenzano, Giuseppe Coppolino, Teresa Faga, Carlo Garofalo, Raffaele Serra, Michele Andreucci. Epidemiology of cardiovascular risk in chronic kidney disease patients: the real silent killer. Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine, 2019, 20(4): 209-220.

URL: 

https://rcm.imrpress.com/EN/10.31083/j.rcm.2019.04.548     OR     https://rcm.imrpress.com/EN/Y2019/V20/I4/209

Figure 1.  Prevalence of common cardiovascular diseases in patients with (Red area) or without (Blue area) chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the United States, in the year 2015.

Figure 2.  Prevalence (%) of cardiovascular disease (myocardial infarction, stroke, peripheral vascular disease, chronic heart failure, angina) by primary renal disease categories. HTN, Hypertensive Nephropathy; DN, Diabetic Nephropathy; OTHER/UK, Other or Unknown; ADPKD, Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease; TIN, Tubulo-Interstitial Nephropathies; GN, Glomerulonephritis. Data source: 3.957 patients selected from the Italian multicenter cohort of CKD patients referred to nephrologists (Provenzano et al., 2018).

Table 1  Studies comparing rates of cardiovascular (CV) events among patients with CKD.
Study Population Intervention Outcome Results
PROGRESS Study (Perkovic et al., 2007) Cerebrovascular disease and CKD Perindopril vs. placebo Total stroke (fatal or non-fatal) and major vascular events. In patients treated with perindopril, risks of major vascular events and stroke were 30% and 35% lower then placebo. This evidence is found in patients with CKD, where the effect of treatment was greater as compared to patients without CKD.
CV outcomes in the Irbesartan Diabetic Nephropathy Trial (Berl et al., 2003) Type 2 diabetic nephropathy and hypertension Irbesartan, amlodipine, or placebo. Doubling of serum creatinine, end-stage renal disease, death from any cause. Cardiovascular risk was unchanged with the addition of irbesartan, amlodipine, or placebo to conventional antihypertensive therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy.
Risk of coronary events in people with chronic kidney disease compared with those with diabetes (Tonelli et al., 2012) CV events in CKD and diabetes Demonstrating whether chronic kidney disease should be considered as a coronary heart disease risk equivalent. The rate of incident myocardial infarction was lower in diabetic patients than in patients with CKD defined eGFR < 45 mL/min per 1.73 m2 and severe proteinuria
ALLHAT Study (Rahman et al., 2006) CKD and hypertension Chlorthalidone vs. Amlodipine vs. Lisinopril. Rates of coronary heart disease (CHD) and ESRD; Predictors of CHD;
Efficacy of a first-step treatment with a Calcium channel Blocker or an Angiotensin Rreceptor Blocker each compared with a diuretic in modifying CVD risk.
Older patients with hypertension and reduced eGFR developed more frequently CHD than ESRD. A low GFR was and independent predictor of increased CHD risk. Neither amlodipine nor lisinopril is superior to chlorthalidone in reducing risks for CHD, stroke or combined CVD. Chlorthalidone was superior to amlodipine and lisinopril for preventing heart failure.
ADVANCE Study (Heerspink et al., 2010) CKD and type 2 diabetes Perindopril and Indapamide vs. placebo Major adverse cardiac event or MACE (cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, unstable angina, heart failure, stroke and other cardiovascular events requiring hospitalization). The treatment with perindopril-indapamide in patients with type 2 diabetes reuduced the risk of cardiovascular, renal outcomes and death across all stages of CKD. Absolute risk reductions were higher in patients with CKD, thus demonstrating the importance of blood pressure control in this population.
EMPA-REG OUTCOME Study (Wanner et al., 2016) Type 2 diabetes at increased cardiovascular risk 10 mg Empaglifozin vs. 25 mg of Empagliflozin vs. placebo Progression of CKD (development of macroalbuminuria, doubling of the serum creatinine, ESRD, or death from renal disease) and incident albuminuria. Empagliflozin slowed the progression of kidney disease as compared to standard care.
HIJ-CREATE Study (Shiga et al., 2010) High-risk hypertensive patients with CHD and CKD Candesartan vs. non-ARB treatment Major adverse cardiac event (MACE) There was no difference in MACE between the two treatment groups in patients without CKD. However, there was a lower incidence of MACE in the candesartan-based treatment group than in the non-ARBs treatment group in patients with CKD.
ALTITUDE Study (Parving et al., 2012) Type 2 diabetes and CKD, CVD, or both Aliskiren vs. placebo in addition to an ACE inhibitor or an ARB Major adverse cardiac event (MACE); ESRD, death due to kidney failure, need for renal-replacement therapy with no dialysis or transplantation available or initiated, doubling of serum creatinine. The addition of aliskiren to standard RAAS therapy with renin-angiotensin system blockade in diabetic patients was not demonstrable and was potentially dangerous.
HOPE Study (Mann et al., 2001) CKD and non CKD patients Ramipril vs. Vitamina E vs. Placebo and Vitamina E vs. Placebo Major adverse cardiac event (MACE); effect of Ramipril on CV risk reduction. In patients with previous cardiovascular disease and diabetes, mild renal impairment significantly increased the risk for subsequent cardiovascular events. Ramipril showed to be effective in reducing cardiovascular risk.
EUROPA Study (Brugts et al., 2007) CKD and non CKD patients with stable CHD Perindopril vs. Placebo Major adverse cardiac event (MACE). Treatment benefits of perindopril were present in both patient groups with low or high eGFR ( ≥ 75 or < 75).
PEACE Study (Solomon et al., 2006) CKD and non-CKD patients with stable CHD
Trandolapril vs. placebo Major adverse cardiac event (MACE). Trandolapril determined a reduction in mortality risk in patients with CKD. Conversely, this result was not confirmed in non-CKD patients.
Val-HeFT Study (Anand et al., 2009) CKD and non CKD patients with Hearth failure (HF) Valsartan vs. placebo Death and first morbid event (death, sudden death with resuscitation, hospitalization for HF, or administration of intravenous inotropic or vasodilator drugs for 4 hours or more). Valsartan reduced the risk of the first morbid event in patients with CKD and HF.
AASK Study (Norris et al., 2006) African Americans with hypertensive nephrosclerosis Metoprolol vs. Ramipril vs. Amlodipine Major adverse cardiac event (MACE).
Neither randomized antihypertensive drugs nor blood pressure level had a significant effect on the occurrence of CV events.
PREVEND IT Study (Asselbergs et al., 2004) Microalbuminuric subjects Fosinopril vs. placebo Major adverse cardiac event (MACE).
In microalbuminuric subjects, fosinopril significantly reduced albuminuria. In addition, fosinopril treatment appeared to reduce the risk for cardiovascular events.
Figure 3.  Baseline renal risk in DECLARE-TIMI 58, CANVAS, EMPA-REG OUTCOME and CREDENCE trials. Horizontal dotted lines and white arrows estimate trials averaged mean eGFRs minus 1 pooled standard deviation; vertical dotted lines and white arrows approximate trials’ quartile 3 of UACR. (Reproduced and adapted from (Kluger et al., 2019))

[1] Adams, K. F. Jr., Fonarow, G. C., Emerman, C. L., LeJemtel, T. H., Costanzo, M. R., Abraham, W. T., Berkowitz, R. L., Galvao, M., Horton, D. P. and Adhere Scientific Advisory Committee Investigators. (2005) Characteristics and outcomes of patients hospitalized for heart failure in the United States: rationale, design, and preliminary observations from the first 100,000 cases in the Acute Decompensated Heart Failure National Registry (ADHERE). American Heart Journal 149, 209-216.
doi: 10.1016/j.ahj.2004.08.005 pmid: 15846257
[2] Anand, I. S., Bishu, K., Rector, T. S., Ishani, A., Kuskowski, M. A. and Cohn, J. N. (2009) Proteinuria, chronic kidney disease, and the effect of an angiotensin receptor blocker in addition to an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor in patients with moderate to severe heart failure. Circulation 120, 1577-1584.
doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.109.853648 pmid: 19805651
[3] Arora, P., Vasa, P., Brenner, D., Iglar, K., McFarlane, P., Morrison, H. and Badawi, A. (2013) Prevalence estimates of chronic kidney disease in Canada: results of a nationally representative survey. Canadian Medical Association Journal 185, E417-E423.
doi: 10.1503/cmaj.120833
[4] Asselbergs, F. W., Diercks, G. F., Hillege, H. L., van Boven, A. J., Janssen, W. M., Voors, A. A., de Zeeuw, D., de Jong, P. E., van Veldhuisen, D. J., van Gilst, W. H. and Prevention of Renal and Vascular Endstage Disease Intervention Trial (PREVEND IT) Investigators. (2004) Effects of fosinopril and pravastatin on cardiovascular events in subjects with microalbuminuria. Circulation 110, 2809-2816.
doi: 10.1161/01.CIR.0000146378.65439.7A pmid: 15492322
[5] Baigent, C., Landray, M. J., Reith, C., Emberson, J., Wheeler, D. C., Tomson, C., Wanner, C., Krane, V., Cass, A., Craig, J., Neal, B., Jiang, L., Hooi, L. S., Levin, A., Agodoa, L., Gaziano, M., Kasiske, B., Walker, R., Massy, Z. A., Feldt-Rasmussen, B., Krairittichai, U., Ophascharoensuk, V., Fellstrom, B., Holdaas, H., Tesar, V., Wiecek, A., Grobbee, D., de Zeeuw, D., Gronhagen-Riska, C., Dasgupta, T., Lewis, D., Herrington, W., Mafham, M., Majoni, W., Wallendszus, K., Grimm, R., Pedersen, T., Tobert, J., Armitage, J., Baxter, A., Bray, C., Chen, Y., Chen, Z., Hill, M., Knott, C., Parish, S., Simpson, D., Sleight, P., Young, A., Collins, R., and Sharp Investigators. (2011) The effects of lowering LDL cholesterol with simvastatin plus ezetimibe in patients with chronic kidney disease (Study of Heart and Renal Protection): a randomised placebo-controlled trial. The Lancet 377, 2181-2192.
doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(11)60739-3 pmid: 21663949
[6] Ballew, S. H. and Matsushita, K. (2018) Cardiovascular Risk Prediction in CKD. Seminars in Nephrology 38, 208-216.
doi: 10.1016/j.semnephrol.2018.02.002 pmid: 29753398
[7] Berl, T., Hunsicker, L. G., Lewis, J. B., Pfeffer, M. A., Porush, J. G., Rouleau, J. L., Drury, P. L., Esmatjes, E., Hricik, D., Parikh, C. R., Raz, I., Vanhille, P., Wiegmann, T. B., Wolfe, B. M., Locatelli, F., Goldhaber, S. Z., Lewis, E. J. and Group Irbesartan Diabetic Nephropathy Trial. Collaborative Study. (2003) Cardiovascular outcomes in the Irbesartan Diabetic Nephropathy Trial of patients with type 2 diabetes and overt nephropathy. Annals of Internal Medicine 138, 542-549.
doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-138-7-200304010-00010 pmid: 12667024
[8] Bolignano, D., Coppolino, G., Aloisi, C., Romeo, A., Nicocia, G., and Buemi, M. (2008) Effect of a single intravenous immunoglobulin infusion on neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin levels in proteinuric patients with normal renal function. Journal of Investigative Medicine 56, 997-1003.
doi: 10.2310/JIM.0b013e31818e7e95 pmid: 18955901
[9] Bolignano, D., Coppolino, G., Romeo, A., Lacquaniti, A., and Buemi, M. (2010) Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin levels in chronic haemodialysis patients. Nephrology (Carlton) 15, 23-26.
doi: 10.1111/j.1440-1797.2009.01163.x pmid: 20377767
[10] Bolignano, D., D'Arrigo, G., Pisano, A., and Coppolino, G. (2015) Pentoxifylline for Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. PLoS One 10, e0134104.
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0134104 pmid: 26237421
[11] Bolignano, D., Pisano, A., and Coppolino, G. (2016) The Dark Side of Blocking RAS in Diabetic Patients with Incipient or Manifested Nephropathy. Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes 124, 350-360.
doi: 10.2215/CJN.06060519 pmid: 31831576
[12] Brugts, J. J., Boersma, E., Chonchol, M., Deckers, J. W., Bertrand, M., Remme, W. J., Ferrari, R., Fox, K., Simoons, M. L., and Europa, Investigators. (2007) The cardioprotective effects of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor perindopril in patients with stable coronary artery disease are not modified by mild to moderate renal insufficiency: insights from the EUROPA trial. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 50, 2148-2155.
doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2007.08.029
[13] Buemi, M., Senatore, M., Gallo, G. C., Crasci, E., Campo, S., Sturiale, A., Coppolino, G., Bolignano, D., and Frisina, N. (2007) Pulmonary hypertension and erythropoietin. Kidney and Blood Pressure Research 30, 248-252.
doi: 10.1159/000104443 pmid: 17587864
[14] Cedillo-Couvert, E., and Ricardo, A. C. (2016) Smoking, Vascular Events, and ESRD in Patients With CKD. American Journal of Kidney Diseases 68 , 338-340.
doi: 10.1053/j.ajkd.2016.06.004 pmid: 27561666
[15] Cheung, A. K., Rahman, M., Reboussin, D. M., Craven, T. E., Greene, T., Kimmel, P. L., Cushman, W. C., Hawfield, A. T., Johnson, K. C., Lewis, C. E., Oparil, S., Rocco, M. V., Sink, K. M., Whelton, P. K., Wright, Jr. J. T., Basile, J., Beddhu, S., Bhatt, U., Chang, T. I., Chertow, G. M., Chonchol, M., Freedman, B. I., Haley, W., Ix, J. H., Katz, L. A., Killeen, A. A., Papademetriou, V., Ricardo, A. C., Servilla, K., Wall, B., Wolfgram, D., Yee, J., and Sprint Research, Group. (2017) Effects of Intensive BP Control in CKD. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 28, 2812-2823.
doi: 10.1681/ASN.2017020148 pmid: 28642330
[16] Coppolino, G., Bolignano, D., Campo, S., Loddo, S., Teti, D., and Buemi, M. (2008) Circulating progenitor cells after cold pressor test in hypertensive and uremic patients. Hypertension Research 31, 717-724.
doi: 10.1291/hypres.31.717 pmid: 18633184
[17] Coppolino, G., Bolignano, D., Rivoli, L., Mazza, G., Presta, P., and Fuiano, G. (2014) Tumour markers and kidney function: a systematic review. BioMed Research International 2014, 1-9.
doi: 10.1016/j.urolonc.2017.03.027 pmid: 28427859
[18] Coppolino, G., Leonardi, G., Andreucci, M., and Bolignano, D. (2018) Oxidative stress and kidney function: A brief update. Current Pharmaceutical Design 24, 4794-4799.
doi: 10.2174/1381612825666190112165206 pmid: 30648504
[19] Coppolino, G., Leporini, C., Rivoli, L., Ursini, F., di Paola, E. D., Cernaro, V., Arturi, F., Bolignano, D., Russo, E., De Sarro, G., and Andreucci, M. (2018) Exploring the effects of DPP-4 inhibitors on the kidney from the bench to clinical trials. Pharmacol Research 129, 274-294.
doi: 10.1016/j.phrs.2017.12.001 pmid: 29223646
[20] Coppolino, G., Pisano, A., Rivoli, L., and Bolignano, D. (2017) Renal denervation for resistant hypertension. Cochrane Database System Reviews 2, CD011499.
doi: 10.1016/j.pcad.2019.12.007 pmid: 31884099
[21] Coresh, J., Selvin, E., Stevens, L. A., Manzi, J., Kusek, J. W., Eggers, P., Van Lente, F., and Levey, A. S. (2007) Prevalence of chronic kidney disease in the United States. The Journal of the American Medical Association 298, 2038-2047.
doi: 10.1001/jama.298.17.2038 pmid: 17986697
[22] Cortes, P., Riser, B. L., Yee, J., and Narins, R. G. (1999) Mechanical strain of glomerular mesangial cells in the pathogenesis of glomerulosclerosis: clinical implications. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 14, 1351-1354.
doi: 10.1093/ndt/14.6.1351 pmid: 10382990
[23] Damman, K., Tang, W. H., Testani, J. M., and McMurray, J. J. (2014) Terminology and definition of changes renal function in heart failure. European Heart Journal 35, 3413-3416.
doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehu320 pmid: 25157110
[24] De Nicola, L., Donfrancesco, C., Minutolo, R., Lo Noce, C., Palmieri, L., De Curtis, A., Iacoviello, L., Zoccali, C., Gesualdo, L., Conte, G., Vanuzzo, D., Giampaoli, S. and Anmco-Sin Research Group. (2015) Prevalence and cardiovascular risk profile of chronic kidney disease in Italy: results of the 2008-12 National Health Examination Survey. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 30, 806-814.
doi: 10.1093/ndt/gfu383 pmid: 25523453
[25] De Nicola, L., Minutolo, R., Chiodini, P., Borrelli, S., Zoccali, C., Postorino, M., Iodice, C., Nappi, F., Fuiano, G., Gallo, C., Conte, G. and C. K. D. Italian Society of Nephrology Study Group Target Blood pressure Levels in. (2012) The effect of increasing age on the prognosis of non-dialysis patients with chronic kidney disease receiving stable nephrology care. Kidney International 82, 482-488.
doi: 10.1038/ki.2012.174
[26] De Nicola, L., Minutolo, R., Chiodini, P., Zoccali, C., Castellino, P., Donadio, C., Strippoli, M., Casino, F., Giannattasio, M., Petrarulo, F., Virgilio, M., Laraia, E., Di Iorio, B. R., Savica, V., Conte, G. and Blood Pressure LEvels in Chronic Kidney Disease Study Group. (2006) Global approach to cardiovascular risk in chronic kidney disease: reality and opportunities for intervention. Kidney International 69, 538-545.
doi: 10.1038/sj.ki.5000085 pmid: 16395261
[27] De Nicola, L., Provenzano, M., Chiodini, P., Borrelli, S., Garofalo, C., Pacilio, M., Liberti, M. E., Sagliocca, A., Conte, G. and Minutolo, R. and Sir-Sin study group. (2015) Independent role of underlying kidney disease on renal prognosis of patients with chronic kidney disease under nephrology care. PLoS One 10, e0127071.
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0127071 pmid: 25992629
[28] De Nicola, L., Provenzano, M., Chiodini, P., Borrelli, S., Russo, L., Bellasi, A., Santoro, D., Conte, G. and Minutolo, R. (2017) Epidemiology of low-proteinuric chronic kidney disease in renal clinics. PLoS One 12, e0172241.
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0172241 pmid: 28212407
[29] De Nicola, L., Provenzano, M., Chiodini, P., D'Arrigo, G., Tripepi, G., Del Vecchio, L., Conte, G., Locatelli, F., Zoccali, C., Minutolo, R. and Sir-Sin study group. (2015) Prognostic role of LDL cholesterol in non-dialysis chronic kidney disease: Multicenter prospective study in Italy. Nutrition, Metabolism & Cardiovascular Diseases 25, 756-762.
doi: 10.1007/s40519-019-00834-1 pmid: 31900880
[30] De, Nicola L., and Zoccali, C. (2016) Chronic kidney disease prevalence in the general population: heterogeneity and concerns. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 31, 331-335.
doi: 10.1093/ndt/gfv427 pmid: 26908831
[31] de Zeeuw, D., Remuzzi, G., Parving, H. H., Keane, W. F., Zhang, Z., Shahinfar, S., Snapinn, S., Cooper, M. E., Mitch, W. E. and Brenner, B. M. (2004) Albuminuria, a therapeutic target for cardiovascular protection in type 2 diabetic patients with nephropathy. Circulation 110, 921-927.
doi: 10.1161/01.CIR.0000139860.33974.28 pmid: 15302780
[32] Deckert, T., Feldt-Rasmussen, B., Borch-Johnsen, K., Jensen, T., and Kofoed-Enevoldsen, A. (1989) Albuminuria reflects widespread vascular damage. The Steno hypothesis. Diabetologia 32, 219-226.
doi: 10.1007/bf00285287 pmid: 2668076
[33] Ellam, T. J., El, Nahas M. (2011) Proteinuria thresholds are irrational: a call for proteinuria indexing. Nephron Clinical Practice 118, c217-c224.
doi: 10.1159/000321687 pmid: 21196766
[34] Fox, C. S., Matsushita, K., Woodward, M., Bilo, H. J., Chalmers, J., Heerspink, H. J., Lee, B. J., Perkins, R. M., Rossing, P., Sairenchi, T., Tonelli, M., Vassalotti, J. A., Yamagishi, K., Coresh, J., de Jong, P. E., Wen, C. P., Nelson, R. G. and Consortium Chronic Kidney Disease Prognosis. (2012) Associations of kidney disease measures with mortality and end-stage renal disease in individuals with and without diabetes: a meta-analysis. The Lancet 380, 1662-1673.
doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61350-6 pmid: 23013602
[35] Fuiano, G., Mancuso, D., Indolfi, C., Mongiardo, A., Sabbatini, M., Conte, G., De Nicola, L., Minutolo, R., Mazza, G., Cianfrone, P. and Andreucci, M. (2005) Early detection of progressive renal dysfunction in patients with coronary artery disease. Kidney International 68, 2773-2780.
doi: 10.1111/j.1523-1755.2005.00748.x pmid: 16316352
[36] Garofalo, C., Borrelli, S., Liberti, M. E., Andreucci, M., Conte, G., Minutolo, R., Provenzano, M. and De Nicola, L. (2019) SGLT2 Inhibitors: Nephroprotective Efficacy and Side Effects. Medicina (Kaunas) 55, 268.
doi: 10.3390/medicina55060268 pmid: 31212638
[37] Goff, D. C. Jr., Lloyd-Jones, D. M., Bennett, G., Coady, S., D'Agostino, R. B. Sr., Gibbons, R., Greenland, P., Lackland, D. T., Levy, D., O'Donnell, C. J., Robinson, J. G., Schwartz, J. S., Shero, S. T., Smith, S. C. Jr., Sorlie, P., Stone, N. J. and Wilson, P. W. F. (2014) 2013 ACC/AHA guideline on the assessment of cardiovascular risk: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 63, 2935-2959.
doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2013.11.005 pmid: 24239921
[38] Heerspink, H. J., Ninomiya, T., Perkovic, V., Woodward, M., Zoungas, S., Cass, A., Cooper, M., Grobbee, D. E., Mancia, G., Mogensen, C. E., Neal, B., Chalmers, J. and Advance Collaborative Group. (2010) Effects of a fixed combination of perindopril and indapamide in patients with type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease. European Heart Journal 31, 2888-2896.
doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehq139 pmid: 20501479
[39] Inker, L. A., Astor, B. C., Fox, C. H., Isakova, T., Lash, J. P., Peralta, C. A., Kurella Tamura, M. and Feldman, H. I. (2014) KDOQI US commentary on the 2012 KDIGO clinical practice guideline for the evaluation and management of CKD. American Journal of Kidney Diseases 63, 713-735.
doi: 10.1053/j.ajkd.2014.01.416
[40] Klahr, S., Levey, A. S., Beck, G. J., Caggiula, A. W., Hunsicker, L., Kusek, J. W. and Striker, G. (1994) The effects of dietary protein restriction and blood-pressure control on the progression of chronic renal disease. Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study Group. The New England Journal of Medicine 330, 877-884.
doi: 10.1056/NEJM199403313301301 pmid: 8114857
[41] Kluger, A. Y., Tecson, K. M., Lee, A. Y., Lerma, E. V., Rangaswami, J., Lepor, N. E., Cobble, M. E. and McCullough, P. A. (2019) Class effects of SGLT2 inhibitors on cardiorenal outcomes. Cardiovascular Diabetology 18, 99.
doi: 10.1186/s12933-019-0903-4 pmid: 31382965
[42] Kohan, D. E., and Barton, M. (2014) Endothelin and endothelin antagonists in chronic kidney disease. Kidney International 86, 896-904.
doi: 10.1038/ki.2014.143
[43] Lash, J. P., Go, A. S., Appel, L. J., He, J., Ojo, A., Rahman, M., Townsend, R. R., Xie, D., Cifelli, D., Cohan, J., Fink, J. C., Fischer, M. J., Gadegbeku, C., Hamm, L. L., Kusek, J. W., Landis, J. R., Narva, A., Robinson, N., Teal, V., Feldman, H. I. and Group Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study. (2009) Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study: baseline characteristics and associations with kidney function. Clin Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 4, 1302-1311.
doi: 10.2215/CJN.11311116 pmid: 28751576
[44] Levey, A. S. and Coresh, J. (2012) Chronic kidney disease. The Lancet 379, 165-180.
doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(11)60178-5 pmid: 21840587
[45] Liang, S., Zhang, X. G., Cai, G. Y., Zhu, H. Y., Zhou, J. H., Wu, J., Chen, P., Lin, S. P., Qiu, Q. and Chen, X. M. (2013) Identifying parameters to distinguish non-diabetic renal diseases from diabetic nephropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis. PLoS One 8, e64184.
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0064184 pmid: 23691167
[46] Ljungman, S., Laragh, J. H. and Cody, R. J. (1990) Role of the kidney in congestive heart failure. Relationship of cardiac index to kidney function. Drugs 39, 10-21.
doi: 10.2165/00003495-199000394-00004 pmid: 2354670
[47] Mahmoodi, B. K., Matsushita, K., Woodward, M., Blankestijn, P. J., Cirillo, M., Ohkubo, T., Rossing, P., Sarnak, M. J., Stengel, B., Yamagishi, K., Yamashita, K., Zhang, L., Coresh, J., de Jong, P. E., Astor, B. C. and Consortium Chronic Kidney Disease Prognosis. (2012) Associations of kidney disease measures with mortality and end-stage renal disease in individuals with and without hypertension: a meta-analysis. The Lancet 380, 1649-1661.
doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61272-0 pmid: 23013600
[48] Mann, J. F., Gerstein, H. C., Pogue, J., Bosch, J. and Yusuf, S. (2001) Renal insufficiency as a predictor of cardiovascular outcomes and the impact of ramipril: the HOPE randomized trial. Annals of Internal Medicine 134, 629-636.
doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-134-8-200104170-00007 pmid: 11304102
[49] Matsushita, K., Coresh, J., Sang, Y., Chalmers, J., Fox, C., Guallar, E., Jafar, T., Jassal, S. K., Landman, G. W., Muntner, P., Roderick, P., Sairenchi, T., Schottker, B., Shankar, A., Shlipak, M., Tonelli, M., Townend, J., van Zuilen, A., Yamagishi, K., Yamashita, K., Gansevoort, R., Sarnak, M., Warnock, D. G., Woodward, M., Arnlov, J. and C. K. D. Prognosis Consortium. (2015) Estimated glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria for prediction of cardiovascular outcomes: a collaborative meta-analysis of individual participant data. The Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 3, 514-525.
doi: 10.1016/S2213-8587(15)00040-6 pmid: 26028594
[50] Matsushita, K., van der Velde, M., Astor, B. C., Woodward, M., Levey, A. S., de Jong, P. E., Coresh, J., Gansevoort, R. T. and Chronic Kidney Disease Prognosis Consortium. (2010) Association of estimated glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in general population cohorts: a collaborative meta-analysis. The Lancet 375, 2073-2081.
doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(10)60674-5 pmid: 20483451
[51] McCullough, P. A., Steigerwalt, S., Tolia, K., Chen, S. C., Li, S., Norris, K. C., Whaley-Connell, A. and Keep Investigators. (2011) Cardiovascular disease in chronic kidney disease: data from the Kidney Early Evaluation Program (KEEP). Current Diabetes Reports 11, 47-55.
doi: 10.1007/s11892-010-0162-y
[52] McCullough, P. A., Whaley-Connell, A., Brown, W. W., Collins, A. J., Chen, S. C., Li, S., Norris, K. C., Jurkovitz, C., McFarlane, S., Obialo, C., Sowers, J., Stevens, L., Vassalotti, J. A., Bakris, G. L. and Investigators Kidney Early Evaluation Program. (2010) Cardiovascular risk modification in participants with coronary disease screened by the Kidney Early Evaluation Program. Internal Medicine Journal 40, 833-841.
doi: 10.1111/j.1445-5994.2009.02158.x pmid: 21199222
[53] McIntyre, N. J. and Taal, M. W. (2008) How to measure proteinuria? Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension 17, 600-603.
doi: 10.1097/MNH.0b013e328313675c pmid: 18941353
[54] Mensah, G. A., Wei, G. S., Sorlie, P. D., Fine, L. J., Rosenberg, Y., Kaufmann, P. G., Mussolino, M. E., Hsu, L. L., Addou, E., Engelgau, M. M. and Gordon, D. (2017) Decline in Cardiovascular Mortality: Possible Causes and Implications. Circulation Research 120, 366-380.
doi: 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.116.309115 pmid: 28104770
[55] Methven, S., MacGregor, M. S., Traynor, J. P., Hair, M., O'Reilly, D. S. and Deighan, C. J. (2011) Comparison of urinary albumin and urinary total protein as predictors of patient outcomes in CKD. American Journal of Kidney Diseases 57, 21-28.
doi: 10.1053/j.ajkd.2010.08.009
[56] Mills, K. T., Bundy, J. D., Kelly, T. N., Reed, J. E., Kearney, P. M., Reynolds, K., Chen, J. and He, J. (2016) Global Disparities of Hypertension Prevalence and Control: A Systematic Analysis of Population-Based Studies From 90 Countries. Circulation 134, 441-450.
doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.115.018912 pmid: 27502908
[57] Minutolo, R., Andreucci, M., Balletta, M. M. and Russo, D. (2000) Effect of posture on sodium excretion and diuretic efficacy in nephrotic patients. American Journal of Kidney Diseases 36, 719-727.
doi: 10.1053/ajkd.2000.17616 pmid: 11007673
[58] Minutolo, R., De Nicola, L., Mazzaglia, G., Postorino, M., Cricelli, C., Mantovani, L. G., Conte, G. and Cianciaruso, B. (2008) Detection and awareness of moderate to advanced CKD by primary care practitioners: a cross-sectional study from Italy. American Journal of Kidney Diseases 52, 444-453.
doi: 10.1053/j.ajkd.2008.03.002
[59] Minutolo, R., Gabbai, F. B., Provenzano, M., Chiodini, P., Borrelli, S., Garofalo, C., Sasso, F. C., Santoro, D., Bellizzi, V., Conte, G. and De Nicola, L. (2018) Cardiorenal prognosis by residual proteinuria level in diabetic chronic kidney disease: pooled analysis of four cohort studies. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 33, 1942-1949.
doi: 10.1093/ndt/gfy032 pmid: 29509925
[60] Murray, C. J. and Lopez, A. D. (2013) Measuring the global burden of disease. The New England Journal of Medicine 369, 448-457.
doi: 10.1056/NEJMra1201534 pmid: 23902484
[61] Nakano, T., Ninomiya, T., Sumiyoshi, S., Fujii, H., Doi, Y., Hirakata, H., Tsuruya, K., Iida, M., Kiyohara, Y. and Sueishi, K. (2010) Association of kidney function with coronary atherosclerosis and calcification in autopsy samples from Japanese elders: the Hisayama study American Journal of Kidney Diseases 55, 21-30.
doi: 10.1053/S0272-6386(09)01471-1 pmid: 19765871
[62] Neal, B., Perkovic, V., de Zeeuw, D., Mahaffey, K. W., Fulcher, G., Stein, P., Desai, M., Shaw, W., Jiang, J., Vercruysse, F., Meininger, G. and Matthews, D. (2013) Rationale, design, and baseline characteristics of the Canagliflozin Cardiovascular Assessment Study (CANVAS)--a randomized placebo-controlled trial. American Heart Journal 166, 217-223 e11.
doi: 10.1016/j.ahj.2013.05.007
[63] Ninomiya, T., Perkovic, V., de Galan, B. E., Zoungas, S., Pillai, A., Jardine, M., Patel, A., Cass, A., Neal, B., Poulter, N., Mogensen, C. E., Cooper, M., Marre, M., Williams, B., Hamet, P., Mancia, G., Woodward, M., Macmahon, S., Chalmers, J. and Advance Collaborative Group. (2009) Albuminuria and kidney function independently predict cardiovascular and renal outcomes in diabetes. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 20, 1813-1821.
doi: 10.1681/ASN.2008121270 pmid: 19443635
[64] Norris, K., Bourgoigne, J., Gassman, J., Hebert, L., Middleton, J., Phillips, R. A., Randall, O., Rostand, S., Sherer, S., Toto, R. D., Wright, J. T. Jr., Wang, X., Greene, T., Appel, L. J., Lewis, J. and Aask Study Group. (2006) Cardiovascular outcomes in the African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension (AASK) Trial. American Journal of Kidney Diseases 48, 739-751.
doi: 10.1053/j.ajkd.2006.08.004
[65] Ohtake, T., Kobayashi, S., Moriya, H., Negishi, K., Okamoto, K., Maesato, K. and Saito, S. (2005) High prevalence of occult coronary artery stenosis in patients with chronic kidney disease at the initiation of renal replacement therapy: an angiographic examination. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 16, 1141-1148.
doi: 10.1681/ASN.2004090765 pmid: 15743997
[66] Orth, S. R. and Hallan, S. I. (2008) Smoking: a risk factor for progression of chronic kidney disease and for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in renal patients--absence of evidence or evidence of absence? Clin Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 3, 226-236.
doi: 10.1038/s41467-019-13823-w pmid: 31900412
[67] Parving, H. H., Brenner, B. M., McMurray, J. J., de Zeeuw, D., Haffner, S. M., Solomon, S. D., Chaturvedi, N., Persson, F., Desai, A. S., Nicolaides, M., Richard, A., Xiang, Z., Brunel, P., Pfeffer, M. A. and Altitude Investigators. (2012) Cardiorenal end points in a trial of aliskiren for type 2 diabetes. The New England Journal of Medicine 367, 2204-2213.
doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1208799 pmid: 23121378
[68] Perkovic, V., Jardine, M. J., Neal, B., Bompoint, S., Heerspink, H. J. L., Charytan, D. M., Edwards, R., Agarwal, R., Bakris, G., Bull, S., Cannon, C. P., Capuano, G., Chu, P. L., de Zeeuw, D., Greene, T., Levin, A., Pollock, C., Wheeler, D. C., Yavin, Y., Zhang, H., Zinman, B., Meininger, G., Brenner, B. M., Mahaffey, K. W. and Credence Trial, Investigators. (2019) Canagliflozin and Renal Outcomes in Type 2 Diabetes and Nephropathy. The New England Journal of Medicine 380, 2295-2306.
doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1811744 pmid: 30990260
[69] Perkovic, V., Ninomiya, T., Arima, H., Gallagher, M., Jardine, M., Cass, A., Neal, B., Macmahon, S. and Chalmers, J. (2007) Chronic kidney disease, cardiovascular events, and the effects of perindopril-based blood pressure lowering: data from the PROGRESS study. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 18, 2766-2772.
doi: 10.1681/ASN.2007020256 pmid: 17804673
[70] Perticone, F., Perticone, M., Maio, R., Sciacqua, A., Andreucci, M., Tripepi, G., Corrao, S., Mallamaci, F., Sesti, G. and Zoccali, C. (2015) Serum alkaline phosphatase negatively affects endothelium-dependent vasodilation in naive hypertensive patients. Hypertension 66, 874-880.
doi: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.115.06117 pmid: 26324506
[71] Perticone, M., Maio, R., Sciacqua, A., Cimellaro, A., Andreucci, M., Tripepi, G., Zoccali, C., Sesti, G. and Perticone, F. (2016) Serum phosphorus levels are associated with endothelial dysfunction in hypertensive patients. Nutrition, Metabolism & Cardiovascular Diseases 26, 683-688.
doi: 10.1007/s40519-019-00834-1 pmid: 31900880
[72] Petrykiv, S. I., de Zeeuw, D., Persson, F., Rossing, P., Gansevoort, R. T., Laverman, G. D. and Heerspink, H. J. L. (2017) Variability in response to albuminuria-lowering drugs: true or random? British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 83, 1197-1204.
doi: 10.1111/bcp.13217 pmid: 28002889
[73] Piepoli, M. F., Hoes, A. W., Agewall, S., Albus, C., Brotons, C., Catapano, A. L., Cooney, M. T., Corra, U., Cosyns, B., Deaton, C., Graham, I., Hall, M. S., Hobbs, F. D. R., Lochen, M. L., Lollgen, H., Marques-Vidal, P., Perk, J., Prescott, E., Redon, J., Richter, D. J., Sattar, N., Smulders, Y., Tiberi, M., van der Worp, H. B., van Dis, I., Verschuren, W. M. M., Binno, S. and E. S. C. Scientific Document Group. (2016) 2016 European Guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice: The Sixth Joint Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and Other Societies on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Clinical Practice (constituted by representatives of 10 societies and by invited experts) Developed with the special contribution of the European Association for Cardiovascular Prevention & Rehabilitation (EACPR). European Heart Journal 37, 2315-2381.
doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehw106 pmid: 27222591
[74] Ponikowski, P., Voors, A. A., Anker, S. D., Bueno, H., Cleland, J. G. F., Coats, A. J. S., Falk, V., Gonzalez-Juanatey, J. R., Harjola, V. P., Jankowska, E. A., Jessup, M., Linde, C., Nihoyannopoulos, P., Parissis, J. T., Pieske, B., Riley, J. P., Rosano, G. M. C., Ruilope, L. M., Ruschitzka, F., Rutten, F. H., van der Meer, P. and E. S. C. Scientific Document Group. (2016) 2016 ESC Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure: The Task Force for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) Developed with the special contribution of the Heart Failure Association (HFA) of the ESC. European Heart Journal 37, 2129-2200.
doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehw128 pmid: 27206819
[75] Provenzano, M., Chiodini, P., Minutolo, R., Zoccali, C., Bellizzi, V., Conte, G., Locatelli, F., Tripepi, G., Del Vecchio, L., Mallamaci, F., Di Micco, L., Russo, D., Heerspink, H. J. L., De Nicola, L. and C. K. D. of the Italian Society of Nephrology Collaborative Study Group on the Conservative Treatment of. (2018) Reclassification of chronic kidney disease patients for end-stage renal disease risk by proteinuria indexed to estimated glomerular filtration rate: multicentre prospective study in nephrology clinics. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 2018, 1-9.
doi: 10.1093/ndt/gfy217 pmid: 30053127
[76] Provenzano, M., Mancuso, C., Garofalo, C., De Nicola, L. and Andreucci, M. (2019) [Temporal variation of Chronic Kidney Disease's epidemiology]. Giornale italiano di nefrologia 36, pii: 2019-vol2.
pmid: 31830398
[77] Rahman, M., Pressel, S., Davis, B. R., Nwachuku, C., Wright, J. T Jr., Whelton, P. K., Barzilay, J., Batuman, V., Eckfeldt, J. H., Farber, M. A., Franklin, S., Henriquez, M., Kopyt, N., Louis, G. T., Saklayen, M., Stanford, C., Walworth, C., Ward, H., Wiegmann, T. and Allhat Collaborative Research Group. (2006) Cardiovascular outcomes in high-risk hypertensive patients stratified by baseline glomerular filtration rate. Annals of Internal Medicine 144, 172-180.
doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-144-3-200602070-00005 pmid: 16461961
[78] Rangaswami, J., Bhalla, V., Blair, J. E. A., Chang, T. I., Costa, S., Lentine, K. L., Lerma, E. V., Mezue, K., Molitch, M., Mullens, W., Ronco, C., Tang, W. H. W., McCullough, P. A., Disease American Heart Association Council on the Kidney in Cardiovascular, and Cardiology Council on Clinical. (2019) Cardiorenal Syndrome: Classification, Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Treatment Strategies: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association. Circulation 139, e840-e878.
doi: 10.1161/CIR.0000000000000664 pmid: 30852913
[79] Remuzzi, A., Gagliardini, E., Sangalli, F., Bonomelli, M., Piccinelli, M., Benigni, A. and Remuzzi, G. (2006) ACE inhibition reduces glomerulosclerosis and regenerates glomerular tissue in a model of progressive renal disease. Kidney International 69, 1124-1130.
doi: 10.1038/sj.ki.5000060 pmid: 16395266
[80] Remuzzi, A., Perticucci, E., Ruggenenti, P., Mosconi, L., Limonta, M. and Remuzzi, G. (1991) Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition improves glomerular size-selectivity in IgA nephropathy. Kidney International 39, 1267-1273.
doi: 10.1038/ki.1991.160 pmid: 1716713
[81] Ronco, C., McCullough, P., Anker, S. D., Anand, I., Aspromonte, N., Bagshaw, S. M., Bellomo, R., Berl, T., Bobek, I., Cruz, D. N., Daliento, L., Davenport, A., Haapio, M., Hillege, H., House, A. A., Katz, N., Maisel, A., Mankad, S., Zanco, P., Mebazaa, A., Palazzuoli, A., Ronco, F., Shaw, A., Sheinfeld, G., Soni, S., Vescovo, G., Zamperetti, N., Ponikowski, P. and group Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative consensus. (2010) Cardio-renal syndromes: report from the consensus conference of the acute dialysis quality initiative. European Heart Journal 31, 703-711.
doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehp507 pmid: 20037146
[82] Russo, D., Andreucci, M., De Blasio, A., Frattolillo, P. and Andreucci, V. E. (2005) Treatment of hypertension in Italian nephrology out-patient clinics: the THIN Study. Seminars in Nephrology 25, 431-434.
doi: 10.1016/j.semnephrol.2005.05.015 pmid: 16298268
[83] Russo, D., Corrao, S., Battaglia, Y., Andreucci, M., Caiazza, A., Carlomagno, A., Lamberti, M., Pezone, N., Pota, A., Russo, L., Sacco, M. and Scognamiglio, B. (2011) Progression of coronary artery calcification and cardiac events in patients with chronic renal disease not receiving dialysis. Kidney International 80, 112-118.
doi: 10.1038/ki.2011.69
[84] Sarafidis, P. A., Khosla, N. and Bakris, G. L. (2007) Antihypertensive therapy in the presence of proteinuria. American Journal of Kidney Diseases 49, 12-26.
doi: 10.1053/j.ajkd.2006.10.014
[85] Savarese, G., Dei Cas, A., Rosano, G., D'Amore, C., Musella, F., Mosca, S., Reiner, M. F., Marchioli, R., Trimarco, B. and Perrone-Filardi, P. (2014) Reduction of albumin urinary excretion is associated with reduced cardiovascular events in hypertensive and/or diabetic patients. A meta-regression analysis of 32 randomized trials. International Journal of Cardiology 172, 403-410.
doi: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2014.01.065
[86] Shiga, T., Kasanuki, H., Hagiwara, N., Sumiyoshi, T., Honda, T., Haze, K., Takagi, A., Kawana, M., Origasa, H., Ogawa, H. and Investigators Heart Institute of Japan Candesartan Randomized Trial for Evaluation in Coronary Artery Disease. (2010) Angiotensin receptor blocker-based therapy and cardiovascular events in hypertensive patients with coronary artery disease and impaired renal function. Blood Pressure 19, 359-365.
doi: 10.3109/08037051003802475 pmid: 20491606
[87] Solomon, S. D., Rice, M. M., Jablonski K, A., Jose, P., Domanski, M., Sabatine, M., Gersh, B. J., Rouleau, J., Pfeffer, M. A., Braunwald, E. and A. C. E. inhibition Investigators Prevention of Events with. (2006) Renal function and effectiveness of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor therapy in patients with chronic stable coronary disease in the Prevention of Events with ACE inhibition (PEACE) trial. Circulation 114, 26-31.
doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.105.592733 pmid: 16801465
[88] Stehouwer, C. D., Nauta, J. J., Zeldenrust, G. C., Hackeng, W. H., Donker, A. J. and den Ottolander, G. J. (1992) Urinary albumin excretion, cardiovascular disease, and endothelial dysfunction in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. The Lancet 340, 319-323.
doi: 10.1111/joim.12128 pmid: 23981104
[89] , Stevens, P. E., Levin, A and Members Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes Chronic Kidney Disease Guideline Development Work Group. (2013) Evaluation and management of chronic kidney disease: synopsis of the kidney disease: improving global outcomes 2012 clinical practice guideline. Annals of Internal Medicine 158, 825-830.
doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-158-11-201306040-00007
[90] Tonelli, M., Muntner, P., Lloyd, A., Manns, B. J., Klarenbach, S., Pannu, N., James, M. T., Hemmelgarn, B. R. and Network Alberta Kidney Disease. (2012) Risk of coronary events in people with chronic kidney disease compared with those with diabetes: a population-level cohort study. The Lancet 380, 807-814.
doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60572-8 pmid: 22717317
[91] Wanner, C., Inzucchi, S. E., Lachin, J. M., Fitchett, D., von Eynatten, M., Mattheus, M., Johansen, O. E., Woerle, H. J., Broedl, U. C., Zinman, B. and Empa-Reg Outcome Investigators. (2016) Empagliflozin and Progression of Kidney Disease in Type 2 Diabetes. The New England Journal of Medicine 375, 323-334.
doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1515920 pmid: 27299675
[92] Weiner, D. E., Tighiouart, H., Elsayed, E. F., Griffith, J. L., Salem, D. N., Levey, A. S. and Sarnak, M. J. (2007) The Framingham predictive instrument in chronic kidney disease. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 50, 217-224.
doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2007.03.037
[93] Whaley-Connell, A., Kurella, M. and McCullough, P. A. (2012) A decade after the KDOQI CKD guidelines: impact on the National Kidney Foundation's Kidney Early Evaluation Program (KEEP). American Journal of Kidney Diseases 60, 692-693.
doi: 10.1053/j.ajkd.2012.08.008 pmid: 23067631
[94] Whaley-Connell, A. T., Kurella Tamura, M., Jurkovitz, C. T., Kosiborod, M. and McCullough, P. A. (2013) Advances in CKD detection and determination of prognosis: executive summary of the National Kidney Foundation-Kidney Early Evaluation Program (KEEP) 2012 annual data report. American Journal of Kidney Diseases 61, S1-S3.
doi: 10.1053/j.ajkd.2013.01.006 pmid: 23507265
[95] Wiviott, S. D., Raz, I., Bonaca, M. P., Mosenzon, O., Kato, E. T., Cahn, A., Silverman, M. G., Zelniker, T. A., Kuder, J. F., Murphy, S. A., Bhatt, D. L., Leiter, L. A., McGuire, D. K., Wilding, J. P. H., Ruff, C. T., Gause-Nilsson, I. A. M., Fredriksson, M., Johansson, P. A., Langkilde, A. M., Sabatine, M. S. and Declare-Timi Investigators. (2019) Dapagliflozin and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Type 2 Diabetes. The New England Journal of Medicine 380, 347-357.
doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1812389 pmid: 30415602
[96] Xia, J., Wang, L., Ma, Z., Zhong, L., Wang, Y., Gao, Y., He, L. and Su, X. (2017) Cigarette smoking and chronic kidney disease in the general population: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 32, 475-487.
doi: 10.1093/ndt/gfw452 pmid: 28339863
[97] Xie, Y., Bowe, B., Mokdad, A. H., Xian, H., Yan, Y., Li, T., Maddukuri, G., Tsai, C. Y., Floyd, T. and Al-Aly, Z. (2018) Analysis of the Global Burden of Disease study highlights the global, regional, and national trends of chronic kidney disease epidemiology from 1990 to 2016. Kidney International 94, 567-581.
doi: 10.1016/j.kint.2018.04.011 pmid: 30078514
[98] Zelniker, T. A., Wiviott, S. D., Raz, I., Im, K., Goodrich, E. L., Bonaca, M. P., Mosenzon, O., Kato, E. T., Cahn, A., Furtado, R. H. M., Bhatt, D. L., Leiter, L. A., McGuire, D. K., Wilding, J. P. H. and Sabatine, M. S. (2019) SGLT2 inhibitors for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular and renal outcomes in type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cardiovascular outcome trials. The Lancet 393, 31-39.
doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)32590-X pmid: 30424892
[99] Zhang, L., Wang, F., Wang, L., Wang, W., Liu, B., Liu, J., Chen, M., He, Q., Liao, Y., Yu, X., Chen, N., Zhang, J. E., Hu, Z., Liu, F., Hong, D., Ma, L., Liu, H., Zhou, X., Chen, J., Pan, L., Chen, W., Wang, W., Li, X. and Wang, H. (2012) Prevalence of chronic kidney disease in China: a cross-sectional survey. The Lancet 379, 815-822.
doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60033-6 pmid: 22386035
[100] Zhou, B., Lu, Y., Hajifathalian, K., Bentham, J., Di Cesare, M., Danaei, G., Bixby, H., Cowan, M. J., Ali, M. K., Taddei, C. and NCD Risk Factor Collaboration (NCD-RisC). (2016) Worldwide trends in diabetes since 1980: a pooled analysis of 751 population-based studies with 4.4 million participants. The Lancet 387, 1513-1530.
doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(16)00618-8 pmid: 27061677
[101] Zoccali, C., Blankestijn, P. J., Bruchfeld, A., Capasso, G., Fliser, D., Fouque, D., Goumenos, D., Ketteler, M., Massy, Z., Rychlik, I., Jose Soler, M., Stevens, K., Spasovski, G. and Wanner, C. (2019) Children of a lesser god: exclusion of chronic kidney disease patients from clinical trials. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 34, 1112-1114.
doi: 10.1093/ndt/gfz070 pmid: 30977814
[1] Meer Fakhry, Mandeep S. Sidhu, Sripal Bangalore, Roy O. Mathew. Accelerated and intensified calcific atherosclerosis and microvascular dysfunction in patients with chronic kidney disease[J]. Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine, 2020, 21(2): 157-162.
[2] Anthony (Ming-yu) Chuang, Mau T Nguyen, Woon-Man Kung, Sam Lehman, Derek P Chew. High-sensitivity troponin in chronic kidney disease: Considerations in myocardial infarction and beyond[J]. Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine, 2020, 21(2): 191-203.
[3] Peter A. McCullough, John Eidt, Janani Rangaswami, Edgar Lerma, James Tumlin, Kevin Wheelan, Nevin Katz, Norman E. Lepor, Kris Vijay, Sandeep Soman, Bhupinder Singh, Sean P. McCullough, Haley B. McCullough, Alberto Palazzuoli, Gaetano M. Ruocco, Claudio Ronco. Urgent need for individual mobile phone and institutional reporting of at home, hospitalized, and intensive care unit cases of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) infection[J]. Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine, 2020, 21(1): 1-7.
[4] María M. Adeva-Andany, Carlos Fernández-Fernández, Natalia Carneiro-Freire, Elvira Castro-Quintela, Ana Pedre-Piñeiro, Mónica Seco-Filgueira. Insulin resistance underlies the elevated cardiovascular risk associated with kidney disease and glomerular hyperfiltration[J]. Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine, 2020, 21(1): 41-56.
[5] Yifan Luo, Lixiang Ren, Mingyan Jiang, Yang Chu. Anti-hypertensive efficacy of amlodipine dosing during morning versus evening: A meta-analysis[J]. Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine, 2019, 20(2): 91-98.
[6] Jennifer G. Robinson, Karol E. Watson. Can We Cure Atherosclerosis?[J]. Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine, 2018, 19(S1): 20-24.
[7] Davide Bolignano, Anna Pisano, Graziella D’Arrigo. Pulmonary hypertension: a neglected risk condition in renal patients?[J]. Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine, 2018, 19(4): 117-121.
[8] Sivakumar Sudhakaran, Teodoro Bottiglieri, Kristen M. Tecson, Aaron Y. Kluger, Peter A. McCullough. Alteration of lipid metabolism in chronic kidney disease, the role of novel antihyperlipidemic agents, and future directions[J]. Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine, 2018, 19(3): 77-88.
[9] Peter A. McCullough, Aaron Y. Kluger, Kristen M. Tecson, Clay M. Barbin, Andy Y. Lee, Edgar V. Lerma, Zachary P. Rosol, Sivan L. Kluger, Janani Rangaswami. Inhibition of the Sodium–Proton Antiporter (Exchanger) is a Plausible Mechanism of Potential Benefit and Harm for Drugs Designed to Block Sodium Glucose Co-transporter 2[J]. Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine, 2018, 19(2): 51-63.
[10] Claudio Ronco, Federico Ronco, Peter A. McCullough. A Call to Action to Develop Integrated Curricula in Cardiorenal Medicine[J]. Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine, 2017, 18(3): 93-99.
[11] Sandeep K. Krishnan, Norman E. Lepor. Acute and Chronic Cardiovascular Effects of Hyperkalemia: New Insights Into Prevention and Clinical Management[J]. Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine, 2016, 17(S1): 9-21.
[12] Peter A. McCullough, Maria Rosa Costanzo, Marc Silver, Bruce Spinowitz, Jun Zhang, Norman E. Lepor. Novel Agents for the Prevention and Management of Hyperkalemia[J]. Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine, 2015, 16(2): 140-155.
[13] Peter Shalit. Management of Dyslipidemia in Patients With Human Immunodeficiency Virus[J]. Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine, 2014, 15(S1): 38-46.
[14] Peter McCullough, Rudolph A. de Boer, Frank Edelmann, Connie M. Lewis, Alan S. Maisel. Utilization of Galectin-3 in Case Management Across the Spectrum of Heart Failure[J]. Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine, 2014, 15(3): 197-207.
[15] Peter A. McCullough, Thomas M. Beaver, Elliott Bennett-Guerrero, Michael Emmett, Gregg C. Fonarow, Abhinav Goyal, Charles A. Herzog, Mikhail Kosiborod, Biff F. Palmer. Acute and Chronic Cardiovascular Effects of Hyperkalemia: New Insights Into Prevention and Clinical Management[J]. Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine, 2014, 15(1): 11-23.
No Suggested Reading articles found!