Please wait a minute...
Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine  2019, Vol. 20 Issue (4): 201-208     DOI: 10.31083/j.rcm.2019.04.57
Review Previous articles | Next articles
AGE-RAGE stress play a role in aortic aneurysm: A comprehensive review and novel potential therapeutic target
Kailash Prasad1, *()
1 Department of Physiology (APP), College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada, S7N 5E5, Canada
Download:  PDF(326KB)  ( 1197 ) Full text   ( 68 )
Export:  BibTeX | EndNote (RIS)      
Abstract:

Aortic aneurysms are mostly asymptomatic but have high rates of mortality when there is rupture or dissection. Matrix metalloproteinases is involved in the evolution of aortic aneurysms. Advanced glycation end products and its cell receptor RAGE (receptor for AGE) and sRAGE (soluble receptor of AGE) have been suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of numerous diseases. This review addresses the role of AGE, RAGE and AGE-RAGE stress (AGE/sRAGE) in the pathogenesis of abdominal aortic aneurysm and thoracic aortic aneurysm in humans. AGE-RAGE interaction not only increases the generation of reactive oxygen species and inflammatory cytokines, but also activates NF-kB. There are increases in the levels of AGE in aortic tissue, skin and serum in patients with thoracic aortic aneurysm and abdominal aortic aneurysm. Levels of RAGE in tissue are elevated in abdominal aortic aneurysm. AGE-RAGE stress is elevated in patients with thoracic aortic aneurysm. The serum levels of cytokines and Matrix metalloproteinases are elevated in patients with thoracic aortic aneurysm and abdominal aortic aneurysm. The levels of AGE and AGE-RAGE stress correlate positively with cytokines and Matrix metalloproteinases, but the serum levels of sRAGE correlate negatively with cytokines and Matrix metalloproteinases. Cytokines levels are positively correlated with the levels of Matrix metalloproteinases in patients with thoracic aortic aneurysm. In conclusion, elevated levels of AGE, RAGE and AGE-RAGE stress, and reduced levels of sRAGE increase the levels of cytokines that in turn increase the production of Matrix metalloproteinases resulting in formation of aortic aneurysms. The data suggest that AGE-RAGE stress is involved in the pathogenesis of aortic aneurysms. Treatment options have also been discussed.

Key words:  Aortic aneurysms      AGE      RAGE      AGE-RAGE stress      cytokines      matrix metalloproteinase     
Submitted:  25 October 2019      Accepted:  14 November 2019      Published:  30 December 2019     
*Corresponding Author(s):  Kailash Prasad     E-mail:  k.prasad@usask.ca

Cite this article: 

Kailash Prasad. AGE-RAGE stress play a role in aortic aneurysm: A comprehensive review and novel potential therapeutic target. Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine, 2019, 20(4): 201-208.

URL: 

https://rcm.imrpress.com/EN/10.31083/j.rcm.2019.04.57     OR     https://rcm.imrpress.com/EN/Y2019/V20/I4/201

Figure 1.  Schematic diagram of involvement of AGE-RAGE stress in the development of aortic aneurysm. AGE, advanced glycation end products; RAGE, receptor for advanced glycation end products; sRAGE, soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products; GLO- 1,glyoxalase-1; GLO-2, glyoxalase-2; AGER1, advanced glycation end products receptor 1; AGER 2, advanced glycation end products receptor-2; MMPs, matrix metalloproteinases.; (↑)increase; (↓), decrease.

[1] Ailawadi, G., Eliason, J., L., and Upchurch, G. R., Jr. (2003) Current concepts in the pathogenesis of abdominal aortic aneurysm. Journal of Vascular Surgery 38, 584-588.
doi: 10.1016/s0741-5214(03)00324-0 pmid: 12947280
[2] Boersema, J., de Vos, L. C., Links, T. P., Mulder, D. J., Smit, A. J., Zeebregts, C. J. and Lefrandt, J. D. (2017) Skin accumulation of advanced glycation end products is increased in patients with an abdominal aortic aneurysm. Journal of Vascular Surgery 66, 1696-1703.
doi: 10.1016/j.jvs.2017.04.037 pmid: 28655550
[3] Bucala, R. and Cerami, A. (1992) Advanced glycosylation: chemistry, biology, and implications for diabetes and aging. Advances in Pharmacology 23, 1-34.
doi: 10.1016/s1054-3589(08)60961-8 pmid: 1540533
[4] Caspar-Bell, G., Dhar, I. Prasad, K. (2016) Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and its receptors in the pathogenesis of hyperthyroidism. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 414, 171-178.
doi: 10.1007/s11010-016-2669-2 pmid: 26895319
[5] Control NCfIPa. WISQARS leading causes of death reports, 1999-2007. 2012 [cited 2012 April 10]; Available from: http://webappa.cdc.gov/sasweb/ncipc/leadcaus10.html.
[6] de Vos, L. C., Boersema, J., Hillebrands, J. L., Schalkwijk, C. G., Meerwaldt, R., Breek, J. C., Smit, A. J., Zeebregts, C. J. and Lefrandt, J. D. (2017) Diverging effects of diabetes mellitus in patients with peripheral artery disease and abdominal aortic aneurysm and the role of advanced glycation end-products: ARTERY study-protocol for a multicentre cross-sectional study. British Medical Journal Open 7, e012584.
doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2016-012584 pmid: 28400456
[7] Edsparr, K., Speetjens, F. M., Mulder-Stapel, A., Goldfarb, R. H., Basse, P. H., Lennernäs, B., Kuppen, P. J. and Albertsson, P. (2010) Effects of IL-2 on MMP expression in freshly isolated human NK cells and the IL-2-independent NK cell line YT. Journal of Immunotherapy 33, 475-481.
doi: 10.1097/CJI.0b013e3181d372a0 pmid: 20463600
[8] Elefteriades, J. A. (2005) Beating a sudden killer. Scientific American 293, 64-71.
doi: 10.1038/scientificamerican1105-64 pmid: 16318028
[9] Forsdahl, S. H., Singh, K., Solberg, S. and Jacobsen, B. K. (2009) Risk factors for abdominal aortic aneurysms: a 7-year prospective study: the Tromsø Study, 1994-2001. Circulation 119, 2202-2208.
doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.108.817619 pmid: 19364978
[10] Freestone, T., Turner, R. J., Coady, A., Higman, D. J., Greenhalgh, R. M. and Powell, J. T. (1995) Inflammation and matrix metalloproteinases in the enlarging abdominal aortic aneurysm. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology 15, 1145-1151.
doi: 10.1161/01.atv.15.8.1145 pmid: 7627708
[11] Gloire, G., Legrand-Poels, S. and Piette, J. (2006) NF-kappaB activation by reactive oxygen species: fifteen years later. Biochemical Pharmacology 72, 1493-505.
doi: 10.1016/j.bcp.2006.04.011
[12] Golledge, J., Karan, M., Moran, C. S., Muller, J., Clancy, P., Dear, A. E. and Norman, P. E. (2008) Reduced expansion rate of abdominal aortic aneurysms in patients with diabetes may be related to aberrant monocyte-matrix interactions. European Heart Journal 29, 665-672.
doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehm557 pmid: 18263873
[13] Guo, D. C., Papke, C. L., He, R. and Milewicz, D. M. (2006) Pathogenesis of thoracic and abdominal aortic aneurysms. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1085, 339-352.
doi: 10.1196/annals.1383.013 pmid: 17182954
[14] Han, Y. P., Tuan, T. L., Wu, H., Hughes, M. and Garner, W. L. (2001) TNF-α stimulates activation of pro-MMP2 in human skin through NF-kB mediated induction of MT1-MMP. Journal of Cell Science 114, 131-139.
pmid: 11112697
[15] Hofmann, B. M., Wilk, J., Heydemann, A., Kim, G., Rehman, J., Lodato, J. A., Raman, J. and McNally, E. M. (2010) S100A12 mediates aortic wall remodeling and aortic aneurysm. Circulation Research 106, 145-154.
doi: 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.109.209486 pmid: 19875725
[16] Hofmann, B., Adam, A. C., Jacobs, K., Riemer, M., Erbs, C., Bushnaq, H., Simm, A., Silber, R. E. and Santos, A. N. (2013) Advanced glycation end product associated skin autofluorescence: a mirror of vascular function? Experimental Gerontology 48, 38-44.
doi: 10.1016/j.exger.2012.04.011
[17] Hudson, B. L., Wendt, T., Bucciarelli, L. G., Rong, L. L., Naka, Y., Yan, S. F. and Schmidt, A. M. (2005) Diabetic vascular disease: it's all the RAGE. Antioxidants & Redox Signaling 7, 1588-1600.
doi: 10.1007/s13105-019-00714-3 pmid: 31900806
[18] Huffman, M. D., Curci, J. A., Moore, G., Kerns, D. B., Starcher, B. C. and Thompson, R. W. (2000) Functional importance of connective tissue repair during the development of experimental abdominal aortic aneurysms. Surgery 128, 429-438.
doi: 10.1067/msy.2000.107379 pmid: 10965315
[19] Jones, K. G., Brull, D. J., Brown, L. C., Sian, M., Greenhalgh, R. M., Humphries, S. E. and Powell, J. T. (2001) Interleukin-6 (IL-6 and the prognosis of abdominal aortic aneurysms. Circulation 103, 2260-2265.
doi: 10.1161/01.cir.103.18.2260 pmid: 11342474
[20] Juvonen, J., Surcel, H. M., Satta, J., Teppo, A. M., Bloigu, A., Syrjälä, H., Airaksinen, J., Leinonen, M., Saikku, P. and Juvonen, T. (1997) Elevated circulating levels of inflammatory cytokines in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology 17, 2843-2847.
doi: 10.1161/01.atv.17.11.2843 pmid: 9409264
[21] Kalea A. Z, Schmidt A. M. and Hudson B. I. (2009) RAGE: a novel biological and genetic marker for vascular disease. Clinical Science 116, 621-637.
doi: 10.1042/CS20080494 pmid: 19275767
[22] Kent, K. C., Zwolak, R. M., Egorova, N. N., Riles, T. S., Manganaro, A., Moskowitz, A. J., Gelijns, A. C. and Greco, G. (2010) Analysis of risk factors for abdominal aortic aneurysm in a cohort of more than 3 million individuals. Journal of Vascular Surgery 52, 539-549.
doi: 10.1016/j.jvs.2010.05.091 pmid: 20630687
[23] Koole, D., van Herwaarden, J. A., Schalkwijk, C. G., Lafeber, F. P. J. G., Vink, A., Smeets, M. B., Pasterkamp, G. and Moll, F. L. (2017) A potential role for glycated cross-links in abdominal aortic aneurysm disease. Journal of Vascular Surgery 65, 1493-1503.
doi: 10.1016/j.jvs.2016.04.028 pmid: 27624703
[24] Kossakowska, A. E., Edwards, D. R., Prusinkiewicz, C., Zhang, M. C., Guo, D., Urbanski, S. J., Grogan, T., Marquez, L. A. and Janowska-Wieczorek, A. (1999) Interleukin-6 regulation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2 and MMP-9) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP-1) expression in malignant non-hodgkin’s lymphomas. Blood 94, 2080-2089.
pmid: 10477738
[25] Kotze, C. W. and Ahmad, I. G. (2001) Etiology and pathology of aortic aneurysm. Editor by Grundmann R, Etiology, pathogenesis and pathophysiology of aortic aneurysms and aneurysmal rupture (pp. 1-31). IntechOpen Press.
[26] Koyama, H., Shoji, T., Yokoyama, H., Motoyama, K., Mori, K., Fukumoto, S., Emoto, M., Shoji, T., Tamei, H., Matsuki, H., Sakurai, S., Yamamoto, Y., Yonekura, H., Watanabe, T., Yamamoto, H. and Nishizawa, Y. (2005) Plasma level of endogenous secretory RAGE is associated with components of the metabolic syndrome and atherosclerosis. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology 25, 2587-2593.
doi: 10.1161/01.ATV.0000190660.32863.cd pmid: 16224056
[27] Kusano, K., Miyaura, C., Inada, M., Tamura, T., Ito, A., Nagase, H., Kamoi, K. and Suda, T. (1998) Regulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2, -3, -9, and -13) by interleukin-1 and interleukin-6 in mouse calvaria: Association of MMP induction with bone reabsorption. Endocrinology 139, 1338-1345.
doi: 10.1210/endo.139.3.5818 pmid: 9492070
[28] Kuzuya, M. and Iguchi, A. (2003) Role of matrix metalloproteinases in vascular remodeling. Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis 10, 275-282.
doi: 10.5551/jat.10.275 pmid: 14718744
[29] Larsson, E., Granath, F., Swedenborg, J. and Hultgren, R. (2009) A population-based case-control study of the familial risk of abdominal aortic aneurysm. Journal of Vascular Surgery 49, 47-50.
doi: 10.1016/j.jvs.2008.08.027 pmid: 19028058
[30] Maillard-Lefebvre, H., Boulanger, E., Daroux, M., Gaxatte, C., Hudson, B. I. and Lambert, M. (2009) Soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products: a new biomarker in diagnosis and prognosis of chronic inflammatory diseases. Rheumatology 48, 1190-1196.
doi: 10.1093/rheumatology/kep199 pmid: 19589888
[31] McMillan. W. E. and Pearce, W. H. (1999) Increased plasma levels of metalloproteinase-9 are associated with abdominal aortic aneurysms. Journal of Vascular Surgery 29, 122-127.
doi: 10.1016/s0741-5214(99)70363-0 pmid: 9882796
[32] McNair, E. D., Wells, C. R., Mabood, Q. A., Basran, R., Pearce, C., Orvold, J., Devilliers, J. and Prasad, K. (2010) Soluble receptors for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) as a predictor of restenosis following percutaneous coronary intervention. Clinical Cardiology 33, 678-685.
doi: 10.1002/clc.20815 pmid: 21089112
[33] McNair, E. D., Wells, C. R., Qureshi, A. M., Basran, R., Pearce, C., Orvold, J., Devilliers, J. and Prasad, K. (2009) Low levels of soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products in non-ST elevation myocardial infarction patients. International Journal of Angiology 18, 187-192.
doi: 10.1055/s-0031-1278352 pmid: 22477551
[34] Mohammed, A. M., Syeda, K., Hadden, T. and Kowluru, A. (2013) Upregulation of phagocyte like NADPH oxidase by cytokines in pancreatic beta-cells: attenuation of oxidative and nitrosative stress by 2-bromopalmitate. Biochemical Pharmacology 85, 109-114.
doi: 10.1016/j.bcp.2012.09.024
[35] Mountain, D. J., Singh, M., Menon, B. and Singh, K. (2007) Interleukin-1 beta increases expression of activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2 in cardiac microvascular endothelial cells: Role of PKC alpha/beta 1 and MAPKs. American Journal of Physiology-Cell Physiology 292, C867-C875.
doi: 10.1152/ajpcell.00161.2006 pmid: 16987994
[36] Nordon, I. M., Hinchliffe, R. J., Holt, P. J., Loftus, I. M. and Thompson, M. M. (2009) Review of current theories for abdominal aortic aneurysm pathogenesis. Vascular 17, 253-263.
doi: 10.2310/6670.2009.00046 pmid: 19769804
[37] Nordon, I. M., Hinchliffe, R. J., Loftus, I. M. and Thompson, M. M. (2011) Pathophysiology and epidemiology of abdominal aortic aneurysms. Nature Reviews Cardiology 8, 92-102.
doi: 10.1038/nrcardio.2010.180 pmid: 21079638
[38] Norman, P. E., Davis, T. M., Le, M. T. and Golledge, J. (2007) Matrix biology of abdominal aortic aneurysms in diabetes: mechanisms underlying the negative association. Connective Tissue Research 48, 125-131.
doi: 10.1080/03008200701331524 pmid: 17522995
[39] Norman, P. E., Davis, W. A., Coughlan, M. T., Forbes, J. M., Golledge, J. and Davis, T. M. (2009) Serum carboxymethyllysine concentrations are reduced in diabetic men with abdominal aortic aneurysms: Health in Men Study. Journal of Vascular Surgery 50, 626-631.
doi: 10.1016/j.jvs.2009.05.058
[40] Ocana, E., Bohórquez, J. C., Pérez-Requena, J., Brieva, J. A. and Rodríguez, C. (2003) Characterisation of T and B lymphocytes infiltrating abdominal aortic aneurysms. Atherosclerosis 170, 39-48.
doi: 10.1016/s0021-9150(03)00282-x pmid: 12957681
[41] Prasad, K. (2019a) AGE-RAGE-stress: a changing landscape in pathology and treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 459, 95-112.
doi: 10.1007/s11010-019-03553-4 pmid: 31079281
[42] Prasad, K. (2019b) AGE-RAGE stress in the pathophysiology of pulmonary hypertension and its treatment. International Journal of Angiology 28, 71-79.
doi: 10.1055/s-0039-1687818 pmid: 31384104
[43] Prasad, K. and Mishra, M. (2018) AGE-RAGE stress, stressors, and anti stressors in health and disease. International Journal of Angiology 27, 1-12.
doi: 10.1055/s-0037-1613678 pmid: 29483760
[44] Prasad, K. and Tiwari, S. (2017) Therapeutic interventions for advanced glycation-end products and its receptor-mediated cardiovascular disease. Current Pharmaceutical Design 23, 937-943.
doi: 10.2174/1381612822666161006143032 pmid: 27719648
[45] Prasad, K., Dhar, I., Zhou, Q., Elmoselhi, H., Shoker., M. and Shoker, A. (2016) AGEs/sRAGE, a novel risk factor in the pathogenesis of end-stage renal disease. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 423, 105-114.
doi: 10.1007/s11010-016-2829-4 pmid: 27714575
[46] Prasad, K. and Mishra, M. (2017) Do advanced glycation end products and its receptors play a role in pathophysiology of hypertension. International Journal of Angiology 26, 1-11.
doi: 10.1055/s-0037-1598183 pmid: 28255209
[47] Prasad, K., Sarkar, A., Zafar, M. A., Shoker, A., Moselhi, H. E., Tranquilli, M., Ziganshin, B. A. and Elefteriades, J. A. (2016) Advanced glycation end products and its receptors in the pathogenesis of thoracic aortic aneurysm. Aorta 4, 1-10.
doi: 10.12945/j.aorta.2015.15.018 pmid: 27766267
[48] Rabkin S. W. (2017) The role of matrix metalloproteinases in the production of aortic aneurysm. Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science 147, 239-265.
doi: 10.1016/bs.pmbts.2017.02.002 pmid: 28413030
[49] Raman, K. G., Ennis, T. L., Schmidt, A. M. and Thompson, R. W. (2016) Deletion of Myeloid Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products (RAGE) Prevents Formation of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) in a Murine Model. Journal of the American College of Surgeons 223, e161.
doi: 10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2016.08.410
[50] Reimerink, J. J., van der Laan, M. J., Koelemay, M. J., Balm, R. and Legemate, D. A. (2013) Systematic review and meta-analysis of population-based mortality from ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm. British Journal of Surgery 100, 1405-1413.
doi: 10.1002/bjs.9235
[51] Reznikov, L. L., Waksman, J., Azam, T., Kim, S. H., Bufler, P., Niwa, T., Werman, A., Zhang, X., Pischetsrieder, M., Shaldon, S. and Dinarello, C. A. (2004) Effect of advanced glycation end products on endotoxin-induced TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-8 in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Clinical Nephrology 61, 324-336.
doi: 10.5414/cnp61324 pmid: 15182127
[52] Rohde, L. E., Arroyo, L. H., Rifai, N., Creager, M. A., Libby, P., Ridker, P. M. and Lee, R. T. (1999) Plasma concentrations of interleukin-6 and abdominal aortic diameter among subjects without aortic dilatation. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology 19, 1695-1699.
doi: 10.1161/01.atv.19.7.1695 pmid: 10397687
[53] Sell, D. R. and Monnier, V. M. (2012) Molecular basis of arterial stiffening; role of glycation-a mini review. Gerontology 58, 227-237.
doi: 10.1159/000334668
[54] Sidloff, D., Stather, P., Dattani, N., Bown, M., Thompson, J., Sayers, R. and Choke, E. (2014) Aneurysm global epidemiology study: public health measures can further reduce abdominal aortic aneurysm mortality. Circulation 129, 747-753.
doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.113.005457 pmid: 24249717
[55] Símová, J., Skvor, J., Reissigová, J., Dudra, J., Lindner, J., Capek, P. and Zvárová, J. (2013) Serum levels of matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 and TGFBR2 gene screening in patients with ascending aortic dilatation. Folia Biologica (Praha) 59, 154-161.
pmid: 24093773
[56] Sinha, S. and Frishman W. H. (1998) Matrix metalloproteinases and abdominal aortic aneurysms: a potential therapeutic target. The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 38, 1077-1088.
pmid: 11301559
[57] Stassen, M., Müller, C., Arnold, M., Hültner, L., Klein-Hessling, S., Neudörfl, C., Reineke, T., Serfling, E. and Schmitt, E. (2001) IL-9 and IL-13 Production by Activated Mast Cells Is Strongly Enhanced in the Presence of Lipopolysaccharide: NF-κB Is Decisively Involved in the Expression of IL- 9. The Journal of Immunology 166, 4391-4398.
doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.166.7.4391 pmid: 11254693
[58] Svensjö, S., Björck, M. and Wanhainen, A. (2013) A current prevalence of abdominal aortic aneurysm in 70-year-old women. British Journal of Surgery 100, 367-372.
doi: 10.1002/bjs.8984
[59] Tam, X. H., Shiu, S. W., Leng, L., Bucala, R., Betteridge, D. J. and Tan, K. C. (2011) Enhanced expression of receptor for advanced glycation end- products is associated with low circulating soluble isoforms of the receptor in Type 2 diabetes. Clinical science (London, England : 1979) 120, 81-89.
doi: 10.1042/CS20100256 pmid: 20726839
[60] Theruvath, T. P., Jones, J. A. and Ikonomidis, J. S. (2012) Matrix Metalloproteinases and Descending Aortic Aneurysms: Parity, Disparity, and Switch. Journal of Cardiac Surgery 27, 81-90.
doi: 10.1111/j.1540-8191.2011.01315.x
[61] Thompson, M. M., Jones, L., Nasim, A., Sayers, R. D. and Bell, P. R. (1996) Angiogenesis in abdominal aortic aneurysms. European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery 11, 464-469.
doi: 10.1016/s1078-5884(96)80183-3 pmid: 8846184
[62] Thompson, R. W., Curci, J. A., Ennis, T. L., Mao, D., Pagano, M. B. and Pham, C. T. (2006) Pathophysiology of abdominal aortic aneurysms: insights from the elastase-induced model in mice with different genetic backgrounds. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1085, 59-73.
doi: 10.1196/annals.1383.029 pmid: 17182923
[63] Thorpe, S. R. and Baynes, J. W. (2003) Millard reaction products in tissue proteins: new products and new perspectives. Amino Acids 25, 275-281.
doi: 10.1007/s00726-003-0017-9
[64] Van Doren, S. R. (2015) Matrix metalloproteinase interactions with collagen and elastin. Matrix Biology 0, 224-231.
doi: 10.1002/term.2581 pmid: 28987032
[65] Verzijl, N., DeGroot, J., Thorpe, S. R., Bank, R. A., Shaw, J. N., Lyons, T. J., Bijlsma, J. W., Lafeber, F. P., Baynes, J. W. and TeKoppele, J. M. (2000) Effect of collagen turnover on the accumulation of advanced glycation end products. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 275, 39027-39031.
doi: 10.1074/jbc.M006700200 pmid: 10976109
[66] Watanabe, T., Sato, A., Sawai, T., Uzuki, M., Goto, H., Yamashita, H., Akamatsu, D., Sato, H., Shimizu, T., Miyama, N., Nakano, Y. and Satomi, S. (2006) The elevated level of circulating matrix metalloproteinase-9 in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms decreased to levels equal to those of healthy controls after an aortic repair. Annals of Vascular Surgery 20, 317-321.
doi: 10.1007/s10016-006-9038-7
[67] Wautier, M. P., Chappey, O., Corda, S., Stern, D. M., Schmidt, A. M. and Wautier, J. L. (2001) Activation of NADPH oxidase by AGE links oxidant stress to altered gene expression via RAGE. American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism 280, E685-E694.
doi: 10.1152/ajpendo.2001.280.5.E685 pmid: 11287350
[68] Wendt, T., Harja, E., Bucciarelli, L., Qu, W., Lu, Y., Rong, L. L., Jenkins, D. G., Stein, G., Schmidt, A. M. and Yan, S. F. (2006) RAGE modulates vascular inflammation and atherosclerosis in a murine model of type 2 diabetes. Atherosclerosis 185, 70-77.
doi: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2005.06.013 pmid: 16076470
[69] Wong, W-R., Kossodo, S. and Kochevar, I. E. (2001) Influence of cytokines on matrix metalloproteinases produced by fibroblasts cultured in monolayer and collagen gells. Journal of the Formosan Medical Association 100, 377-382.
pmid: 11480246
[70] Xu, J., Murphy, S. L., Kochanek, K. D. and Bastian, B. A. (2016) Deaths: Final Data for 2013. National Vital Statistics Reports 64, 1-119.
pmid: 26905861
[71] Yang, D., Elner, S. G., Bian, Z. M., Till, G. O., Petty, H. R. and Elner, V. M. (2007) Pro-inflammatory cytokines increase reactive oxygen species through mitochondria and NADPH oxidase in cultured RPE cells. Experimental Eye Research 85, 462-472.
doi: 10.1016/j.exer.2007.06.013
[72] Yao, Y., Zhuang, J., Li, Y., Jing, B., Li, H., Li, J., Shao, C., Li, K. and Wang, H. (2015) Association of polymorphisms of the receptor for advanced glycation end products gene and susceptibility to sporadic abdominal aortic aneurysm. Biomed Research International 2015, 394126.
doi: 10.1155/2015/394126 pmid: 25789318
[73] Yonekura, H., Yamamoto, Y., Sakurai, S., Petrova, R. G., Abedin, M. J., Li, H., Yasui, K., Takeuchi, M., Makita, Z., Takasawa, S., Okamoto, H., Watanabe, T. and Yamamoto, H. (2003) Novel splice variants of the receptor for advanced glycation endproducts expressed in human vascular endothelial cells and pericytes, and their putative roles in diabetes-induced vascular injury. Biochemical Journal 370, 1097-1109.
doi: 10.1042/BJ20021371 pmid: 12495433
[74] Zhang, F., Banker, G., Liu, X., Suwanabol, P. A., Lengfeld, J., Yamanouchi, D., Kent, K. C. and Liu, B. (2011) The Novel Function of Advanced Glycation End Products in Regulation of MMP-9 Production. Journal of Surgical Research 171, 871-876.
doi: 10.1016/j.jss.2010.04.027
[75] Zhang, F., Kent, K. C., Yamanouchi, D., Zhang, Y., Kato, K., Tsai, S., Nowygrod, R., Schmidt, A. M. and Liu, B. (2009) Anti-receptor for advanced glycation endproducts therapies as novel treatment for abdominal aortic aneurysm. Annals of Surgery 250, 416-423.
doi: 10.1097/SLA.0b013e3181b41a18 pmid: 19652591
[76] Zhang, J., Schmidt, J., Ryschich, E., Mueller-Schilling, M., Schumacher, H. and Allenberg, J. R. (2003) Inducible nitric oxide synthase is present in human abdominal aortic aneurysm and promotes oxidative vascular injury. Journal of Vascular Surgery 38, 360-336.
doi: 10.1016/s0741-5214(03)00148-4 pmid: 12891121
[1] Meer Fakhry, Mandeep S. Sidhu, Sripal Bangalore, Roy O. Mathew. Accelerated and intensified calcific atherosclerosis and microvascular dysfunction in patients with chronic kidney disease[J]. Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine, 2020, 21(2): 157-162.
[2] Megan S. Joseph, Maryse Palardy, Nicole M. Bhave. Management of heart failure in patients with end-stage kidney disease on maintenance dialysis: a practical guide[J]. Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine, 2020, 21(1): 31-39.
[3] Guicheng Liang, Beizhu Xu, Shirong Wang, Chengxuan Li, Guoqiang Zhong. Imaging with intracardiac echocardiography compared to transesophageal echocardiography during left atrial appendage occlusion[J]. Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine, 2020, 21(1): 93-101.
[4] Lincan Li, Tong Jia. Optical Coherence Tomography Vulnerable Plaque Segmentation Based on Deep Residual U-Net[J]. Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine, 2019, 20(3): 171-177.
[5] Sofia A. Horvath, Nicholas Suraci, Jayanand D'Mello, Orlando Santana. Persistent left superior vena cava identified by transesophageal echocardiography[J]. Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine, 2019, 20(2): 99-100.
[6] Janani Rangaswami, Sandeep Soman, Peter A. McCullough. Key updates in Cardio-Nephrology from 2018: springboard to a bright Future[J]. Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine, 2018, 19(4): 113-116.
[7] Davide Bolignano, Anna Pisano, Graziella D’Arrigo. Pulmonary hypertension: a neglected risk condition in renal patients?[J]. Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine, 2018, 19(4): 117-121.
[8] Sivakumar Sudhakaran, Teodoro Bottiglieri, Kristen M. Tecson, Aaron Y. Kluger, Peter A. McCullough. Alteration of lipid metabolism in chronic kidney disease, the role of novel antihyperlipidemic agents, and future directions[J]. Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine, 2018, 19(3): 77-88.
[9] Molly Orosey, Lohit Garg, Sahil Agrawal, Manyoo Agarwal, Jinu J. John, David E. Haines >, Wai Shun Wong. Atrioesophageal Fistula Following Radiofrequency Catheter Ablation of Atrial Fibrillation[J]. Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine, 2017, 18(3): 115-122.
[10] Stephen F. Lau, James S. Hood, Dorinna D. Mendoza, Carolyn Yi Li, Maria Ansari, Jamal S. Rana. The Clot Thickens: Unusual Presentation of a Left Atrial Thrombus[J]. Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine, 2015, 16(1): 81-83.
[11] Norman E. Lepor, Dean D. Fouchia, Peter A. McCulloughsup. New Vistas for the Treatment of Obesity: Turning the Tide Against the Leading Cause of Morbidity and Cardiovascular Mortality in the Developed World[J]. Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine, 2014, 15(S2): 1-21.
[12] Roy Beigel, Robert J. Siegel. Evaluation of Prosthetic Valve Dysfunction With the Use of Echocardiography[J]. Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine, 2014, 15(4): 332-350.
[13] Peter McCullough, Rudolph A. de Boer, Frank Edelmann, Connie M. Lewis, Alan S. Maisel. Utilization of Galectin-3 in Case Management Across the Spectrum of Heart Failure[J]. Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine, 2014, 15(3): 197-207.
[14] Richard D Fessler, Chiu Yuen To, Vickie Gordon, Carrie Stover, Robert Dunne. An Innovative, Multidisciplinary, Process-Driven Approach to Acute Stroke in a Community Health System Network[J]. Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine, 2014, 15(3): 252-265.
[15] Thomas W. Smith, William J. Bommer. Multimodality Imaging in Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement[J]. Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine, 2014, 15(2): 75-85.
No Suggested Reading articles found!