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Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine  2020, Vol. 21 Issue (1): 1-7     DOI: 10.31083/j.rcm.2020.01.42
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Urgent need for individual mobile phone and institutional reporting of at home, hospitalized, and intensive care unit cases of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) infection
Peter A. McCullough1, 2, 3, *(), John Eidt1, 2, 3, Janani Rangaswami4, Edgar Lerma5, James Tumlin6, Kevin Wheelan1, 2, 3, Nevin Katz7, Norman E. Lepor8, Kris Vijay9, Sandeep Soman10, Bhupinder Singh11, Sean P. McCullough12, Haley B. McCullough13, Alberto Palazzuoli14, Gaetano M. Ruocco14, Claudio Ronco15, 16
Baylor University Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75226, USA
Baylor Heart and Vascular Institute, Dallas, TX 75226, USA
Baylor Jack and Jane Hamilton Heart and Vascular Hospital, Dallas, TX 75226, USA
Thomas Jefferson College of Medicine, Einstein Medical Center, Philadelphia, PA 19141, USA
University of Illinois at Chicago, Advocate Christ Medical Center Oak Lawn, IL 60453, USA
Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA 90048, USA
Abrazo Arizona Heart Hospital and Heart Institute in Phoenix, AZ 850169, USA
10 Henry Ford Hospital Detroit, MI 48202, USA
11 Cardiorenal Society of America, Phoenix, AZ 85004, USA
12 University of Texas McGovern Medical School, Houston, TX 77030, USA
13 University of Denver Sturm School of Law, Denver, CO 80210, USA
14 University of Siena, Le Scotte Hospital Viale Bracci Siena Italy, Siena, SI 53100, Italy.
15 Università degli Studi di Padova, PD 35122, Italy
16 University of Padova, Padova, International Renal Research Institute Vicenza, San Bortolo Hospital, Vicenza, VI 36100, Italy
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Abstract:

Approximately 90 days of the SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) spreading originally from Wuhan, China, and across the globe has led to a widespread chain of events with imminent threats to the fragile relationship between community health and economic health. Despite near hourly reporting on this crisis, there has been no regular, updated, or accurate reporting of hospitalizations for COVID-19. It is known that many test-positive individuals may not develop symptoms or have a mild self-limited viral syndrome consisting of fever, malaise, dry cough, and constitutional symptoms. However some individuals develop a more fulminant syndrome including viral pneumonia, respiratory failure requiring oxygen, acute respiratory distress syndrome requiring mechanical ventilation, and in substantial fractions leading to death attributable to COVID-19. The pandemic is evolving in a clustered, non-inform fashion resulting in many hospitals with preparedness but few or no cases, and others that are completely overwhelmed. Thus, a considerable risk of spread when personal protection equipment becomes exhausted and a large fraction of mortality in those not offered mechanical ventilation are both attributable to a crisis due to maldistribution of resources. The pandemic is amenable to self-reporting through a mobile phone application that could obtain critical information on suspected cases and report on the results of self testing and actions taken. The only method to understand the clustering and the immediate hospital resource needs is mandatory, uniform, daily reporting of hospital censuses of COVID-19 cases admitted to hospital wards and intensive care units. Current reports of hospitalizations are delayed, uncertain, and wholly inadequate. This paper urges all the relevant stakeholders to take up self-reporting and reporting of hospitalizations of COVID-19 as an urgent task in combating this devastating pandemic.

Key words:  SARS-CoV-2      COVID-19      hospitalization      critical care      mortality      epidemiology      reporting      public health      resource utilization     
Submitted:  23 March 2020      Accepted:  24 March 2020      Published:  30 March 2020     
*Corresponding Author(s):  Peter A. McCullough     E-mail:  peteramccullough@gmail.com

Cite this article: 

Peter A. McCullough, John Eidt, Janani Rangaswami, Edgar Lerma, James Tumlin, Kevin Wheelan, Nevin Katz, Norman E. Lepor, Kris Vijay, Sandeep Soman, Bhupinder Singh, Sean P. McCullough, Haley B. McCullough, Alberto Palazzuoli, Gaetano M. Ruocco, Claudio Ronco. Urgent need for individual mobile phone and institutional reporting of at home, hospitalized, and intensive care unit cases of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) infection. Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine, 2020, 21(1): 1-7.

URL: 

https://rcm.imrpress.com/EN/10.31083/j.rcm.2020.01.42     OR     https://rcm.imrpress.com/EN/Y2020/V21/I1/1

Table 1.  Various internet reporting of the COVID-19 pandemic. These sources are commonly taken and redisplayed in the television and other news media.
SourceWeb Site URLsInformation ReportedSources of InformationInformation not Reported
Centers for Disease Control and Preventionhttps://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6912e2.htm#F2_down

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/cases-updates/cases-in-us.html
1.Total cases
2.Total deaths
3.Hospitalizations
4.ICU admissions
10 different sourcesa1.Self-reported cases
Johns Hopkins University & Medicinehttps://coronavirus.jhu.edu/map.html1.Total cases
2.Total deaths
3.Total recovered
1.DXY (online platform run by members of the Chinese medical community);
2.China CDC (CCDC),
3.Hong Kong Department of Health,
4.Macau Government,
5.Taiwan CDC,
6.European CDC (ECDC)
7.World Health Organization (WHO)
8.US CDC
9.Government of Canada
10.Australia Government Department of Health
11.Various state or territory health authorities
1.Self-reported cases
2.Hospitalizations
3.ICU admissions
Worldometerbhttps://www.worldometers.info/coronavirus/country/us/1.Total cases
2.Total deaths
3.Total recovered
4.Infected patients in mild condition; serious/critical condition
5.Total Recovered
25 different sourcesc including press reports and social media reporting1.Self-reported cases
2.Hospitalizations
3.ICU admissions
World Health Organizationhttps://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019

https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/situation-reports/20200322-sitrep-62-covid-19.pdf?sfvrsn=f7764c46_2
1.Total cases
2.Total deaths
3.Transmission classification
National authorities (no specific sources stated)1.Self-reported cases
2.Hospitalizations
3.ICU admissions
Figure 1.  Sample report access from the Johns Hopkins website on March 23, 2020

Figure 2.  Sample report of hospitalized cases from the CDC website on March 22, 2020, data unchanged since March 16, 2020

Figure 3.  Sample report of all information reported on Worldmeter accessed March 23, 2020

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