Please wait a minute...
Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine  2020, Vol. 21 Issue (1): 41-56     DOI: 10.31083/j.rcm.2020.01.5102
Special Issue: Cardiovascular disorders in chronic kidney disease
Review Previous articles | Next articles
Insulin resistance underlies the elevated cardiovascular risk associated with kidney disease and glomerular hyperfiltration
María M. Adeva-Andany1, *(), Carlos Fernández-Fernández1, Natalia Carneiro-Freire1, Elvira Castro-Quintela1, Ana Pedre-Piñeiro1, Mónica Seco-Filgueira1
Nephrology Division, Internal Medicine Department, Hospital General Juan Cardona, c/ Pardo Bazán s/n, 15406 Ferrol, Spain
Download:  PDF(320KB)  ( 566 ) Full text   ( 30 )
Export:  BibTeX | EndNote (RIS)      
Abstract:

The curve that describes the relationship between glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and cardiovascular risk is U-shaped, indicating that both reduced GFR (kidney failure) and elevated GFR (glomerular hyperfiltration) are equivalent cardiovascular risk factors. The elevated cardiovascular risk associated with abnormal GFR is not explained by standard cardiovascular risk factors. The relationship between GFR and all-cause mortality follows a similar pattern, so that altered GFR (either low or high) increases the risk for overall mortality. Glomerular hyperfiltration is an adaptive process that arises under conditions that demand improved kidney excretory capacity, such as animal protein ingestion and kidney failure. Unlike vegetable protein, animal protein consumption increases dietary acid load and requires an elevation of the GFR to restore acid-base balance. The loss of functioning nephrons in diseased kidneys requires a compensatory increase of the GFR in the nephrons that remain working to enhance whole-kidney GFR. A major factor that raises GFR is the pancreatic hormone glucagon. Glucagon infusion and endogenous glucagon release increase GFR in healthy subjects and patients with kidney failure. In addition to its kidney hemodynamic effect, glucagon causes insulin resistance. Like hyperglucagonemia, insulin resistance develops across the entire spectrum of abnormal GFR, from glomerular hyperfiltration to advanced kidney disease. Insulin resistance is associated with subclinical vascular injury in the general population and patients with diabetes and kidney failure, being a strong cardiovascular risk factor in these population groups. Animal protein consumption activates glucagon secretion and promotes insulin resistance, having a detrimental effect on cardiovascular disease and renal outcomes.

Key words:  Glucagon      insulin resistance      kidney disease      glomerular filtration rate      glomerular hyperfiltration      renal plasma flow      cardiovascular risk      animal protein      vegetable protein      vascular disease     
Submitted:  04 December 2019      Accepted:  09 March 2020      Published:  30 March 2020     
*Corresponding Author(s):  María M. Adeva-Andany     E-mail:  madevaa@yahoo.com

Cite this article: 

María M. Adeva-Andany, Carlos Fernández-Fernández, Natalia Carneiro-Freire, Elvira Castro-Quintela, Ana Pedre-Piñeiro, Mónica Seco-Filgueira. Insulin resistance underlies the elevated cardiovascular risk associated with kidney disease and glomerular hyperfiltration. Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine, 2020, 21(1): 41-56.

URL: 

https://rcm.imrpress.com/EN/10.31083/j.rcm.2020.01.5102     OR     https://rcm.imrpress.com/EN/Y2020/V21/I1/41

Figure 1.  Relationship between glucagon-induced insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease. Kidney failure and animal protein intake activate glucagon secretion, which in turn causes insulin resistance and increases glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Insulin resistance induces subclinical vascular injury and cardiovascular disease. Elevated GFR achieves optimal kidney function in patients with kidney disease and induces glomerular hyperfiltration in healthy subjects.

Table 1.  Glomerular hyperfiltration is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality
Population / Number of subjectsType of studyGlomerular filtration rate (GFR)Main findings
Schmieder 1990Subjects with essential hypertension / 111Cross-sectionalEndogenous creatinine clearanceGlomerular hyperfiltration is associated with left ventricular hypertrophy
Eriksen, 2014General population (Norway) / 1,521Cross-sectionalIohexol clearanceGlomerular hyperfiltration is associated with subclinical vascular disease in healthy subjects from the general population.
Choi, 2015General population (Korea) / 6,986Cross-sectionalChronic kidney disease-Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equationGlomerular hyperfiltration is associated with coronary artery calcification in healthy men from the general population
Reboldi, 2018A total of 8,794 participants (89% hypertensive) / 8,794Prospective
Follow-up: 6.2 years
CKD-EPI equationGlomerular hyperfiltration is associated with higher risk of cardiovascular events in a multiethnic population
Altay, 2014Subjects without kidney disease / 789Prospective
Follow-up: 3 years
Modification of diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) study equationGlomerular hyperfiltration is associated with higher risk of death and cardiovascular disease.
Cox, 2008General population / 33,386Cross-sectionalMDRD equationGlomerular hyperfiltration predicts an increased mortality among community living subjects
Matsushita, 201021 general population cohorts / 105,872Meta-analysisMDRD equationAll-cause mortality risk was higher at GFR > 105 ml/min/1.73 m2 compared with at GFR 75-105 ml/min/1.73 m2.
Tonelli, 2011Population-based laboratory data set /
1,526,437
Cross-sectionalCKD-EPI equationAn elevated GFR predicts an elevated risk of all-cause mortality
Park, 2015General population (Korea) / 43,503
Prospective
Follow-up: 12.4 years
CKD-EPI equationGlomerular hyperfiltration is associated with increased all-cause mortality in a healthy population.
Table 2.  Association between glomerular hyperfiltration and insulin resistance in healthy subjects and obese patients
Study population / Number / Type of studyAssessment of insulin sensitivityGlomerular filtration rate (GFR)Main findings
Naderpoor, 2017Healthy subjects and obese patients / 104 / Cross-sectionalHyperinsulinemic euglycemic clampChronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equationInsulin resistance is strongly and independently associated with elevated GFR
Melsom, 2011General population
(Norway) / 1,594 /
Longitudinal cohort
Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT)Iohexol clearanceGlucose intolerance is independently associated with elevated GFR
Tomaszewski, 2007Young healthy men / 1,572 / Cross-sectionalClinical features (metabolic syndrome)Creatinine clearance (Cockcroft-Gault equation)The presence of the metabolic syndrome is independently associated with elevated GFR
Lee, 2017Adolescents (US) / 8,793 / Cross-sectionalHomeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)Schwartz equation (Chronic Kidney Disease in Children study)Glomerular hyperfiltration was independently associated with insulin resistance
Kelishadi, 2018Pediatric population Iran / 3,800 / Cross-sectionalClinical features (high blood pressure, obesity)Modified Schwartz equationElevated GFR is associated with clinical features of insulin resistance in children
Okada, 2012General population (Japan) / 99,140 / Cross-sectionalClinical features (prehypertension, IGT)Modification of Diet in Kidney Disease (MDRD) equationThe prevalence of glomerular hyperfiltration increased with worsening insulin resistance
Kawata, 2019General population Japan / 24,524 / Longitudinal retrospectivePrediabetes by the American Diabetes Association vs IECEquation developed for Japanese subjectsPrediabetes defined by the International Expert Committee (IEC) is an independent risk for incident glomerular hyperfiltration.
Dengel, 1996Obese subjects / 10 / Cross-sectionalHyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp99mTc-diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid clearanceInsulin resistance is associated with glomerular hyperfiltration
Chagnac, 2000Body mass index > 38 kg/m2 /21 / Cross-sectionalOral glucose tolerance testInulin clearanceInsulin resistance is positively correlated with GFR
Chagnac, 2003Obese subjects / 17 / Interventional gastroplastyHyperinsulinemia, IGTInulin clearanceAfter surgery, there was a marked improvement of GFR and insulin resistance
[1] Adeva-Andany, M.,Martinez-Rodríguez, J.,González-Lucán, M.,Fernandez-Fernandez, C. and Castro-Quintela, E. (2019)Insulin resistance is a cardiovascular risk factor in humans.Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome 13, 1449-1455.
[2] Adeva-Andany, M. M.,Ameneiros-Rodriguez, E.,Fernandez-Fernandez, C.,Dominguez-Montero, A. and Funcasta-Calderon, R. (2019a)Insulin resistance is associated with subclinical vascular disease in humans.World Journal of Diabetes 10, 63-77.
[3] Adeva-Andany, M. M.,Funcasta-Calderon, R.,Fernandez-Fernandez, C.,Ameneiros-Rodriguez, E. and Dominguez-Montero, A. (2019b)Subclinical vascular disease in patients with diabetes is associated with insulin resistance.Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome 13, 2198-2206.
[4] Akalin, N.,Koroglu, M.,Harmankaya, O.,Akay, H. and Kumbasar, B. (2015)Comparison of insulin resistance in the various stages of chronic kidney disease and inflammation.Renal Failure 37, 237-240.
[5] Altay, S.,Onat, A.,Ozpamuk-Karadeniz, F.,Karadeniz, Y.,Kemaloglu-Oz, T. and Can, G. (2014)Renal "hyperfiltrators" are at elevated risk of death and chronic diseases.BMC Nephrology 15, 160.
[6] Amiel, C.,Blanchet, F.,Friedlander, G. and Nitenberg, A. (1990)Renal Functional Reserve.Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation: official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association 5, 763-770.
[7] Anderson, J. W.,Smith, B. M. and Washnock, C. S. (1999)Cardiovascular and renal benefits of dry bean and soybean intake.The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 70, 464S-474S.
[8] Banerjee, D.,Recio-Mayoral, A.,Chitalia, N. and Kaski, J. C. (2011)Insulin resistance, inflammation, and vascular disease in nondiabetic predialysis chronic kidney disease patients.Clinical Cardiology 34, 360-365.
[9] Banerjee, T.,Crews, D. C.,Wesson, D. E.,Tilea, A.,Saran, R.,Rios Burrows, N.,Williams, D. E. and Powe, N. R. (2014)Dietary acid load and chronic kidney disease among adults in the united states.BMC Nephrology 15, 137.
[10] Banerjee, T.,Crews, D. C.,Wesson, D. E.,Tilea, A. M.,Saran, R.,Rios-Burrows, N.,Williams, D. E. and Powe, N. R. (2015)High dietary acid load predicts ESRD among adults with CKD.Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN 26, 1693-1700.
[11] Becker, B.,Kronenberg, F.,Kielstein, J. T.,Haller, H.,Morath, C.,Ritz, E. and Fliser, D. (2005)Renal insulin resistance syndrome, adiponectin and cardiovascular events in patients with kidney disease: the mild and moderate kidney disease study.Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN 16, 1091-1098.
[12] Benedetti, A.,Simpson, R. G.,Grodsky, G. M. and Forsham, P. H. (1967)Exaggerated insulin response to glucagon in simple obesity.Diabetes 16, 666-669.
[13] Bergstrom, J.,Ahlberg, M. and Alvestrand, A. (1985)Influence of protein intake on renal hemodynamics and plasma hormone concentrations in normal subjects.Acta Medica Scandinavica 217, 189-196.
[14] Bilbrey, G. L.,Faloona, G. R.,White, M. G. and Knochel, J. P. (1974)Hyperglucagonemia of renal failure.The Journal of Clinical Investigation 53, 841-847.
[15] Bosch, J. P.,Lauer, A. and Glabman, S. (1984)Short-term protein loading in assessment of patients with renal disease.The American Journal of Medicine 77, 873-879.
[16] Bosch, J. P.,Lew, S.,Glabman, S. and Lauer, A. (1986)Renal hemodynamic changes in humans. Response to protein loading in normal and diseased kidneys.The American Journal of Medicine 81, 809-815.
[17] Bosch, J. P.,Saccaggi, A.,Lauer, A.,Ronco, C.,Belledonne, M. and Glabman, S. (1983)Renal functional reserve in humans. Effect of protein intake on glomerular filtration rate.The American Journal of Medicine 75, 943-950.
[18] Bosma, R. J.,van der Heide, J. J.,Oosterop, E. J.,de Jong, P. E. and Navis, G. (2004)Body mass index is associated with altered renal hemodynamics in non-obese healthy subjects.Kidney International 65, 259-265.
[19] Brandle, E.,Sieberth, H. G. and Hautmann, R. E. (1996)Effect of chronic dietary protein intake on the renal function in healthy subjects.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 50, 734-740.
[20] Brouhard, B. H.,LaGrone, L. F.,Richards, G. E. and Travis, L. B. (1987)Somatostatin limits rise in glomerular filtration rate after a protein meal.The Journal of Pediatrics 110, 729-734.
[21] Brugts, J. J.,Knetsch, A. M.,Mattace-Raso, F. U.,Hofman, A. and Witteman, J. C. (2005)Renal function and risk of myocardial infarction in an elderly population: the Rotterdam study.Archives of Internal Medicine 165, 2659-2665.
[22] Castellino, P.,Coda, B. and DeFronzo, R. A. (1986)Effect of amino acid infusion on renal hemodynamics in humans.The American Journal of Physiology 251, F132-140.
[23] Castellino, P.,Levin, R.,Shohat, J. and DeFronzo, R. A. (1990)Effect of specific amino acid groups on renal hemodynamics in humans.The American Journal of Physiology 258, F992-997.
[24] Cerletty, J. M. and Engbring, N. H. (1967)Azotemia and glucose intolerance.Annals of Internal Medicine 66, 1097-1108.
[25] Chagnac, A.,Weinstein, T.,Herman, M.,Hirsh, J.,Gafter, U. and Ori, Y. (2003)The effects of weight loss on renal function in patients with severe obesity.Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN 14, 1480-1486.
[26] Chagnac, A.,Weinstein, T.,Korzets, A.,Ramadan, E.,Hirsch, J. and Gafter, U. (2000)Glomerular hemodynamics in severe obesity.American Journal of Physiology Renal Physiology 278, F817-822.
[27] Chan, A. Y.,Cheng, M. L.,Keil, L. C. and Myers, B. D. (1988)Functional response of healthy and diseased glomeruli to a large, protein-rich meal.The Journal of Clinical Investigation 81, 245-254.
[28] Chauveau, P.,Koppe, L.,Combe, C.,Lasseur, C.,Trolonge, S. and Aparicio, M. (2019)Vegetarian diets and chronic kidney disease.Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation: official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association 34, 199-207.
[29] Chen, J.,Muntner, P.,Hamm, L. L.,Fonseca, V.,Batuman, V.,Whelton, P. K. and He, J. (2003)Insulin resistance and risk of chronic kidney disease in nondiabetic US adults.Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN 14, 469-477.
[30] Chen, J.,Muntner, P.,Hamm, L. L.,Jones, D. W.,Batuman, V.,Fonseca, V.,Whelton, P. K. and He, J. (2004)The metabolic syndrome and chronic kidney disease in U.S. adults.Annals of Internal Medicine 140, 167-174.
[31] Chen, X.,Wei, G.,Jalili, T.,Metos, J.,Giri, A.,Cho, M. E.,Boucher, R.,Greene, T. and Beddhu, S. (2016)The associations of plant protein intake with all-cause mortality in CKD.American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation 67, 423-430.
[32] Choi, H. M.,Hyun, Y. Y.,Lee, K. B. and Kim, H. (2015)High estimated glomerular filtration rate is associated with coronary artery calcification in middle-aged korean men without chronic kidney disease.Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation: official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association 30, 996-1001.
[33] Chonchol, M. and Scragg, R. (2007)25-hydroxyvitamin d, insulin resistance, and kidney function in the third national health and nutrition examination survey.Kidney International 71, 134-139.
[34] Claris-Appiani, A.,Assael, B. M.,Tirelli, A. S.,Cavanna, G.,Corbetta, C. and Marra, G. (1988)Proximal tubular function and hyperfiltration during amino acid infusion in man.American Journal of Nephrology 8, 96-101.
[35] Cohen, B. D. (1962)Abnormal carbohydrate metabolism in renal disease. Blood glucose unresponsiveness to hypoglycemia, epinephrine, and glucagon.Annals of Internal Medicine 57, 204-213.
[36] Correa, S.,Pena-Esparragoza, J. K.,Scovner, K. M.,Waikar, S. S. and Mc Causland, F. R. (2019)Myeloperoxidase and the risk of ckd progression, cardiovascular disease, and death in the chronic renal insufficiency cohort (cric) study.American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
[37] Cox, H. J.,Bhandari, S.,Rigby, A. S. and Kilpatrick, E. S. (2008)Mortality at low and high estimated glomerular filtration rate values: a 'U' shaped curve.Nephron Clinical Practice 110, c67-72.
[38] de Boer, I. H.,Katz, R.,Chonchol, M. B.,Fried, L. F.,Ix, J. H.,Kestenbaum, B.,Mukamal, K. J.,Peralta, C. A. and Siscovick, D. S. (2012)Insulin resistance, cystatin C, and mortality among older adults.Diabetes Care 35, 1355-1360.
[39] de Boer, I. H.,Zelnick, L.,Afkarian, M.,Ayers, E.,Curtin, L.,Himmelfarb, J.,Ikizler, T. A.,Kahn, S. E.,Kestenbaum, B. and Utzschneider, K. (2016)Impaired glucose and insulin homeostasis in moderate-severe CKD.Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN 27, 2861-2871.
[40] DeFronzo, R. A.,Alvestrand, A.,Smith, D.,Hendler, R.,Hendler, E. and Wahren, J. (1981)Insulin resistance in uremia.The Journal of Clinical Investigation 67, 563-568.
[41] DeFronzo, R. A.,Tobin, J. D.,Rowe, J. W. and Andres, R. (1978)Glucose intolerance in uremia. Quantification of pancreatic beta cell sensitivity to glucose and tissue sensitivity to insulin.The Journal of Clinical Investigation 62, 425-435.
[42] Dengel, D. R.,Goldberg, A. P.,Mayuga, R. S.,Kairis, G. M. and Weir, M. R. (1996)Insulin resistance, elevated glomerular filtration fraction, and renal injury.Hypertension (Dallas, Tex: 1979) 28, 127-132.
[43] DeSanto, N. G.,Coppola, S.,Anastasio, P.,Coscarella, G.,Capasso, G.,Castellino, P.,De Mercato, R.,Bellini, L.,Strazzullo, P.,Guadagno, P.andet al. (1990)Pancreatectomy abolishes the renal hemodynamic response to a meat meal in man.Nephron 55, 85-86.
[44] Dhaene, M.,Sabot, J. P.,Philippart, Y.,Doutrelepont, J. M. and Vanherweghem, J. L. (1987)Effects of acute protein loads of different sources on glomerular filtration rate.Kidney International Supplement 22, S25-28.
[45] Di Angelantonio, E.,Chowdhury, R.,Sarwar, N.,Aspelund, T.,Danesh, J. and Gudnason, V. (2010)Chronic kidney disease and risk of major cardiovascular disease and non-vascular mortality: prospective population based cohort study.BMJ (Clinical research ed) 341, c4986.
[46] Dzurik, R.,Spustova, V. and Janekova, K. (1995)The prevalence of insulin resistance in kidney disease patients before the development of renal failure.Nephron 69, 281-285.
[47] Eidemak, I.,Feldt-Rasmussen, B.,Kanstrup, I. L.,Nielsen, S. L.,Schmitz, O. and Strandgaard, S. (1995)Insulin resistance and hyperinsulinaemia in mild to moderate progressive chronic renal failure and its association with aerobic work capacity.Diabetologia 38, 565-572.
[48] Eriksen, B. O.,Lochen, M. L.,Arntzen, K. A.,Bertelsen, G.,Eilertsen, B. A.,von Hanno, T.,Herder, M.,Jenssen, T. G.,Mathisen, U. D.,Melsom, T.,Njolstad, I.,Solbu, M. D.,Toft, I. and Mathiesen, E. B. (2014)Subclinical cardiovascular disease is associated with a high glomerular filtration rate in the nondiabetic general population.Kidney International 86, 146-153.
[49] Fioretto, P.,Trevisan, R.,Giorato, C.,De Riva, C.,Doria, A.,Valerio, A.,Semplicini, A.,Angeli, P.,Cipollina, M. R. and Nosadini, R. (1988)Type I insulin-dependent diabetic patients show an impaired renal hemodynamic response to protein intake.The Journal of Diabetic Complications 2, 27-29.
[50] Fliser, D.,Pacini, G.,Engelleiter, R.,Kautzky-Willer, A.,Prager, R.,Franek, E. and Ritz, E. (1998)Insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia are already present in patients with incipient renal disease.Kidney International 53, 1343-1347.
[51] Fox, C. S.,Matsushita, K.,Woodward, M.,Bilo, H. J.,Chalmers, J.,Heerspink, H. J.,Lee, B. J.,Perkins, R. M.,Rossing, P.,Sairenchi, T.,Tonelli, M.,Vassalotti, J. A.,Yamagishi, K.,Coresh, J.,de Jong, P. E.,Wen, C. P. and Nelson, R. G. (2012)Associations of kidney disease measures with mortality and end-stage renal disease in individuals with and without diabetes: a meta-analysis.Lancet (London, England) 380, 1662-1673.
[52] Fried, L. F.,Katz, R.,Sarnak, M. J.,Shlipak, M. G.,Chaves, P. H. M.,Swords, N.,Stehman-Breen, C.,Gillen, D.,Bleyer, A. J.,Hirsch, C.,Siscovick, D. and Newman, A. B. (2005)Kidney function as a predictor of noncardiovascular mortality.Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN 16, 3728-3735.
[53] Friedlander, G.,Blanchet-Benque, F.,Nitenberg, A.,Laborie, C.,Assan, R. and Amiel, C. (1990)Glucagon secretion is essential for aminoacid-induced hyperfiltration in man.Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation: Official Publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association 5, 110-117.
[54] Gin, H.,Aparicio, M.,Potaux, L.,de Precigout, V.,Bouchet, J. L. and Aubertin, J. (1987)Low protein and low phosphorus diet in patients with chronic renal failure: influence on glucose tolerance and tissue insulin sensitivity.Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental 36, 1080-1085.
[55] Giordano, M.,Castellino, P.,McConnell, E. L. and DeFronzo, R. A. (1994)Effect of amino acid infusion on renal hemodynamics in humans: a dose-response study.The American Journal of Physiology 267, F703-708.
[56] Go, A. S.,Chertow, G. M.,Fan, D.,McCulloch, C. E. and Hsu, C. Y. (2004)Chronic kidney disease and the risks of death, cardiovascular events, and hospitalization.The New England Journal of Medicine 351, 1296-1305.
[57] Graf, H.,Stummvoll, H. K.,Luger, A. and Prager, R. (1983)Effect of amino acid infusion on glomerular filtration rate.The New England Journal of Medicine 308, 159-160.
[58] Gutierrez, O. M.,Muntner, P.,Rizk, D. V.,McClellan, W. M.,Warnock, D. G.,Newby, P. K. and Judd, S. E. (2014)Dietary patterns and risk of death and progression to esrd in individuals with CKD: a cohort study.American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation 64, 204-213.
[59] Hallan, S.,Astor, B.,Romundstad, S.,Aasarod, K.,Kvenild, K. and Coresh, J. (2007)Association of kidney function and albuminuria with cardiovascular mortality in older vs younger individuals: the hunt II study.Archives of Internal Medicine 167, 2490-2496.
[60] Hallan, S. I.,Matsushita, K.,Sang, Y.,Mahmoodi, B. K.,Black, C.,Ishani, A.,Kleefstra, N.,Naimark, D.,Roderick, P.,Tonelli, M.,Wetzels, J. F.,Astor, B. C.,Gansevoort, R. T.,Levin, A.,Wen, C. P. and Coresh, J. (2012)Age and association of kidney measures with mortality and end-stage renal disease.JAMA 308, 2349-2360.
[61] Hampers, C. L.,Lowrie, E. G.,Soeldner, J. S. and Merrill, J. P. (1970)The effect of uremia upon glucose metabolism.Archives of Internal Medicine 126, 870-874.
[62] Hampers, C. L.,Soeldner, J. S.,Doak, P. B. and Merrill, J. P. (1966)Effect of chronic renal failure and hemodialysis on carbohydrate metabolism.The Journal of Clinical Investigation 45, 1719-1731.
[63] Han, E.,Lee, Y. H.,Lee, B. W.,Kang, E. S. and Cha, B. S. (2017)Pre-sarcopenia is associated with renal hyperfiltration independent of obesity or insulin resistance: Nationwide Surveys (KNHANES 2008-2011).Medicine 96, e7165.
[64] Haring, B.,Selvin, E.,Liang, M.,Coresh, J.,Grams, M. E.,Petruski-Ivleva, N.,Steffen, L. M. and Rebholz, C. M. (2017)Dietary protein sources and risk for incident chronic kidney disease: results from the atherosclerosis risk in communities (ARIC) study.Journal of Renal Nutrition: the Official Journal of the Council on Renal Nutrition of the National Kidney Foundation 27, 233-242.
[65] Herber-Gast, G. M.,Boersma, M.,Verschuren, W. M. M.,Stehouwer, C. D. A.,Gansevoort, R. T.,Bakker, S. J. L. and Spijkerman, A. M. W. (2017)Consumption of whole grains, fruit and vegetables is not associated with indices of renal function in the population-based longitudinal doetinchem study.The British Journal of Nutrition 118, 375-382.
[66] Hirschberg, R. R.,Zipser, R. D.,Slomowitz, L. A. and Kopple, J. D. (1988)Glucagon and prostaglandins are mediators of amino acid-induced rise in renal hemodynamics.Kidney International 33, 1147-1155.
[67] Horton, E. S.,Johnson, C. and Lebovitz, H. E. (1968)Carbohydrate metabolism in uremia.Annals of Internal Medicine 68, 63-74.
[68] Hostetter, T. H. (1986)Human renal response to meat meal.The American Journal of Physiology 250, F613-618.
[69] Iduoriyekemwen, N. J.,Ibadin, M. O.,Aikhionbare, H. A.,Idogun, S. E. and Abiodun, M. T. (2019)Glomerular hyperfiltration in excess weight adolescents.Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice 22, 842-848.
[70] Jenkins, D. J.,Kendall, C. W.,Vidgen, E.,Augustin, L. S.,van Erk, M.,Geelen, A.,Parker, T.,Faulkner, D.,Vuksan, V.,Josse, R. G.,Leiter, L. A. and Connelly, P. W. (2001)High-protein diets in hyperlipidemia: effect of wheat gluten on serum lipids, uric acid, and renal function.The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 74, 57-63.
[71] Johnson, D. W.,Armstrong, K.,Campbell, S. B.,Mudge, D. W.,Hawley, C. M.,Coombes, J. S.,Prins, J. B. and Isbel, N. M. (2007)Metabolic syndrome in severe chronic kidney disease: prevalence, predictors, prognostic significance and effects of risk factor modification.Nephrology (Carlton, Vic) 12, 391-398.
[72] Jones, G.,Lee, K. and Swaminathan, R. (1985)Glomerular filtration response to acute protein load.Lancet (London, England) 2, 838.
[73] Jones, M. G.,Lee, K. and Swaminathan, R. (1987)The effect of dietary protein on glomerular filtration rate in normal subjects.Clinical Nephrology 27, 71-75.
[74] Jun, M.,Venkataraman, V.,Razavian, M.,Cooper, B.,Zoungas, S.,Ninomiya, T.,Webster, A. C. and Perkovic, V. (2012)Antioxidants for chronic kidney disease.The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 10, CD008176.
[75] Juraschek, S. P.,Appel, L. J.,Anderson, C. A. and Miller, E. R., 3rd (2013)Effect of a high-protein diet on kidney function in healthy adults: results from the omniheart trial.American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation 61, 547-554.
[76] Juraschek, S. P.,Chang, A. R.,Appel, L. J.,Anderson, C. A.,Crews, D. C.,Thomas, L.,Charleston, J. and Miller, E. R., 3rd (2016)Effect of glycemic index and carbohydrate intake on kidney function in healthy adults.BMC Nephrology 17, 70.
[77] Kahleova, H.,Levin, S. and Barnard, N. (2017)Cardio-metabolic benefits of plant-based diets.Nutrients 9, E848.
[78] Kato, Y.,Hayashi, M.,Ohno, Y.,Suzawa, T.,Sasaki, T. and Saruta, T. (2000)Mild renal dysfunction is associated with insulin resistance in chronic glomerulonephritis.Clinical Nephrology 54, 366-373.
[79] Kawata, I.,Koshi, T.,Hirabayashi, K.,Koike, H.,Sato, Y.,Yamashita, K.,Oguchi, T. and Aizawa, T. (2019)Prediabetes defined by the international expert committee as a risk for development of glomerular hyperfiltration.Acta Diabetologica 56, 525-529.
[80] Keith, D. S.,Nichols, G. A.,Gullion, C. M.,Brown, J. B. and Smith, D. H. (2004)Longitudinal follow-up and outcomes among a population with chronic kidney disease in a large managed care organization.Archives of Internal Medicine 164, 659-663.
[81] Kelishadi, R.,Qorbani, M.,Assadi, F.,Motlagh, M. E.,Djalalinia, S.,Shahsavari, A.,Ziaodini, H.,Taheri, M.,Shafiee, G.,Aminianfar, A.,Esmaeili, S.,Aminaei, T.,Mansourian, M. and Heshmat, R. (2018)Glomerular hyperfiltration as predictor of cardiometabolic risk factors among children and adolescents: the childhood and adolescence surveillance and prevention of adult-V study.International Journal of Preventive Medicine 9, 33.
[82] Kelly, J. T.,Palmer, S. C.,Wai, S. N.,Ruospo, M.,Carrero, J. J.,Campbell, K. L. and Strippoli, G. F. (2017)Healthy dietary patterns and risk of mortality and ESRD in CKD: a meta-analysis of cohort studies.Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN 12, 272-279.
[83] Kitazato, H.,Fujita, H.,Shimotomai, T.,Kagaya, E.,Narita, T.,Kakei, M. and Ito, S. (2002)Effects of chronic intake of vegetable protein added to animal or fish protein on renal hemodynamics.Nephron 90, 31-36.
[84] Kitiyakara, C.,Yamwong, S.,Cheepudomwit, S.,Domrongkitchaiporn, S.,Unkurapinun, N.,Pakpeankitvatana, V. and Sritara, P. (2007)The metabolic syndrome and chronic kidney disease in a Southeast Asian cohort.Kidney International 71, 693-700.
[85] Kleinman, K. S. and Glassock, R. J. (1986)Glomerular filtration rate fails to increase following protein ingestion in hypothalamo-hypophyseal-deficient adults. Preliminary observations.American Journal of Nephrology 6, 169-174.
[86] Kobayashi, S.,Maesato, K.,Moriya, H.,Ohtake, T. and Ikeda, T. (2005)Insulin resistance in patients with chronic kidney disease.American journal of kidney diseases: the official journal of the National Kidney Foundation 45, 275-280.
[87] Kontessis, P.,Jones, S.,Dodds, R.,Trevisan, R.,Nosadini, R.,Fioretto, P.,Borsato, M.,Sacerdoti, D. and Viberti, G. (1990)Renal, metabolic and hormonal responses to ingestion of animal and vegetable proteins.Kidney International 38, 136-144.
[88] Kubo, M.,Kiyohara, Y.,Kato, I.,Iwamoto, H.,Nakayama, K.,Hirakata, H. and Fujishima, M. (1999)Effect of hyperinsulinemia on renal function in a general Japanese population: the Hisayama study.Kidney International 55, 2450-2456.
[89] Kuku, S. F.,Jaspan, J. B.,Emmanouel, D. S.,Zeidler, A.,Katz, A. I. and Rubenstein, A. H. (1976a)Heterogeneity of plasma glucagon. Circulating components in normal subjects and patients with chronic renal failure.The Journal of Clinical Investigation 58, 742-750.
[90] Kuku, S. F.,Zeidler, A.,Emmanouel, D. S.,Katz, A. I. and Rubenstein, A. H. (1976b)Heterogeneity of plasma glucagon: patterns in patients with chronic renal failure and diabetes.The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 42, 173-176.
[91] Kurella, M.,Lo, J. C. and Chertow, G. M. (2005)Metabolic syndrome and the risk for chronic kidney disease among nondiabetic adults.Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN 16, 2134-2140.
[92] Landau, M.,Kurella-Tamura, M.,Shlipak, M. G.,Kanaya, A.,Strotmeyer, E.,Koster, A.,Satterfield, S.,Simsonick, E. M.,Goodpaster, B.,Newman, A. B. and Fried, L. F. (2011)Correlates of insulin resistance in older individuals with and without kidney disease.Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation: Official Publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association 26, 2814-2819.
[93] Lee, A. M.,Charlton, J. R.,Carmody, J. B.,Gurka, M. J. and DeBoer, M. D. (2017)Metabolic risk factors in nondiabetic adolescents with glomerular hyperfiltration.Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation: Official Publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association 32, 1517-1524.
[94] Levin, A.,Djurdjev, O.,Barrett, B.,Burgess, E.,Carlisle, E.,Ethier, J.,Jindal, K.,Mendelssohn, D.,Tobe, S.,Singer, J. and Thompson, C. (2001)Cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic kidney disease: getting to the heart of the matter.American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation 38, 1398-1407.
[95] Linder, G. C.,Hiller, A. and Van Slyke, D. D. (1925)Carbohydrate metabolism in nephritis.The Journal of Clinical Investigation 1, 247-272.
[96] Low, S.,Zhang, X.,Wang, J.,Yeoh, L. Y.,Liu, Y. L.,Ang, K. K. L.,Tang, W. E.,Kwan, P. Y.,Tavintharan, S.,Sum, C. F. and Lim, S. C. (2018)Long-Term prospective observation suggests that glomerular hyperfiltration is associated with rapid decline in renal filtration function: a multiethnic study.Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research 15, 417-423.
[97] Lowrie, E. G.,Soeldner, J. S.,Hampers, C. L. and Merrill, J. P. (1970)Glucose metabolism and insulin secretion in uremic, prediabetic, and normal subjects.The Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine 76, 603-615.
[98] Mahmoodi, B. K.,Matsushita, K.,Woodward, M.,Blankestijn, P. J.,Cirillo, M.,Ohkubo, T.,Rossing, P.,Sarnak, M. J.,Stengel, B.,Yamagishi, K.,Yamashita, K.,Zhang, L.,Coresh, J.,de Jong, P. E. and Astor, B. C. (2012)Associations of kidney disease measures with mortality and end-stage renal disease in individuals with and without hypertension: A Meta-Analysis.Lancet (London, England) 380, 1649-1661.
[99] Mak, R. H.,Turner, C.,Thompson, T.,Haycock, G. and Chantler, C. (1987)Glucose metabolism in children with uremia: effect of dietary phosphate and protein.Kidney International Supplement 22, 206-209.
[100] Matsushita, K.,Mahmoodi, B. K.,Woodward, M.,Emberson, J. R.,Jafar, T. H.,Jee, S. H.,Polkinghorne, K. R.,Shankar, A.,Smith, D. H.,Tonelli, M.,Warnock, D. G.,Wen, C. P.,Coresh, J.,Gansevoort, R. T.,Hemmelgarn, B. R. and Levey, A. S. (2012)Comparison of Risk Prediction Using the CKD-EPI equation and the MDRD study equation for estimated glomerular filtration rate.JAMA 307, 1941-1951.
[101] Matsushita, K.,van der Velde, M.,Astor, B. C.,Woodward, M.,Levey, A. S.,de Jong, P. E.,Coresh, J. and Gansevoort, R. T. (2010)Association of estimated glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in general population cohorts: A Collaborative Meta-Analysis.Lancet (London, England) 375, 2073-2081.
[102] Meisinger, C.,Doring, A. and Lowel, H. (2006)Chronic kidney disease and risk of incident myocardial infarction and all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality in middle-aged men and women from the general population.European Heart Journal 27, 1245-1250.
[103] Melsom, T.,Mathisen, U. D.,Ingebretsen, O. C.,Jenssen, T. G.,Njolstad, I.,Solbu, M. D.,Toft, I. and Eriksen, B. O. (2011)Impaired fasting glucose is associated with renal hyperfiltration in the general population.Diabetes Care 34, 1546-1551.
[104] Moller, G.,Sluik, D.,Ritz, C.,Mikkila, V.,Raitakari, O. T.,Hutri-Kahonen, N.,Dragsted, L. O.,Larsen, T. M.,Poppitt, S. D.,Silvestre, M. P.,Feskens, E. J. M.,Brand-Miller, J. and Raben, A. (2017)A protein diet score, including plant and animal protein, investigating the association with HbA1c and eGFR-the PREVIEW project.Nutrients 9
[105] Muntner, P.,He, J.,Hamm, L.,Loria, C. and Whelton, P. K. (2002)Renal insufficiency and subsequent death resulting from cardiovascular disease in the United States.Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN 13, 745-753.
[106] Myers, V. C. and Bailey, C. V. (1916)The Lewis and Benedict Method for the Estimation of Blood Sugar, with Some Observations Obtained in Disease.The Journal of Biological Chemistry 24, 161-174.
[107] Naderpoor, N.,Lyons, J. G.,Mousa, A.,Ranasinha, S.,de Courten, M. P. J.,Soldatos, G. and de Courten, B. (2017)Higher glomerular filtration rate is related to insulin resistance but not to obesity in a predominantly obese non-diabetic cohort.Scientific Reports 7, 45522.
[108] Nakamura, H.,Ito, S.,Ebe, N. and Shibata, A. (1993)Renal Effects of Different Types of protein in healthy volunteer subjects and diabetic patients.Diabetes Care 16, 1071-1075.
[109] Nakamura, H.,Takasawa, M.,Kashara, S.,Tsuda, A.,Momotsu, T.,Ito, S. and Shibata, A. (1989)Effects of acute protein loads of different sources on renal function of patients with diabetic nephropathy.The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine 159, 153-162.
[110] Nakamura, H.,Yamazaki, M.,Chiba, Y.,Tamura, N.,Momotsu, T.,Ito, S.,Shibata, A.,Kamoi, K. and Yamaji, T. (1990)Glomerular filtration response to acute loading with protein from different sources in healthy volunteers and diabetic patients.The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine 162, 269-278.
[111] Nakamura, H.,Yamazaki, M.,Chiba, Y.,Tani, N.,Momotsu, T.,Kamoi, K.,Ito, S.,Yamaji, T. and Shibata, A. (1991)Acute loading with proteins from different sources in healthy volunteers and diabetic patients.The Journal of Diabetic Complications 5, 140-142.
[112] Nerpin, E.,Riserus, U.,Ingelsson, E.,Sundstrom, J.,Jobs, M.,Larsson, A.,Basu, S. and Arnlov, J. (2008)Insulin sensitivity measured with euglycemic clamp is independently associated with glomerular filtration rate in a community-based cohort.Diabetes Care 31, 1550-1555.
[113] Okada, R.,Yasuda, Y.,Tsushita, K.,Wakai, K.,Hamajima, N. and Matsuo, S. (2012)Glomerular hyperfiltration in prediabetes and prehypertension.Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation: Official Publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association 27, 1821-1825.
[114] Olsen, N. V.,Hansen, J. M.,Ladefoged, S. D.,Fogh-Andersen, N.,Nielsen, S. L. and Leyssac, P. P. (1990)Overall renal and tubular function during infusion of amino acids in normal man.Clinical Science (London, England: 1979) 78, 497-501.
[115] Onat, A.,Hergenc, G.,Uyarel, H.,Ozhan, H.,Esen, A. M.,Karabulut, A.,Albayrak, S.,Can, G. and Keles, I. (2007)Association between mild renal dysfunction and insulin resistance or metabolic syndrome in a random nondiabetic population sample.Kidney & Blood Pressure Research 30, 88-96.
[116] Park, M.,So, R.,Joo, K. W. and Yoon, H. J. (2016)Association between lower serum bicarbonate and renal hyperfiltration in the general population with preserved renal function: a cross-sectional study.BMC Nephrology 17, 3.
[117] Park, M.,Yoon, E.,Lim, Y. H.,Kim, H.,Choi, J. and Yoon, H. J. (2015)Renal hyperfiltration as a novel marker of all-cause mortality.Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN 26, 1426-1433.
[118] Parving, H. H.,Christiansen, J. S.,Noer, I.,Tronier, B. and Mogensen, C. E. (1980)The effect of glucagon infusion on kidney function in short-term insulin-dependent juvenile diabetics.Diabetologia 19, 350-354.
[119] Parving, H. H.,Noer, J.,Kehlet, H.,Mogensen, C. E.,Svendsen, P. A. and Heding, L. (1977)The effect of short-term glucagon infusion on kidney function in normal man.Diabetologia 13, 323-325.
[120] Perrone-Filardi, P.,Coca, A.,Galderisi, M.,Paolillo, S.,Alpendurada, F.,de Simone, G.,Donal, E.,Kahan, T.,Mancia, G.,Redon, J.,Schmieder, R.,Williams, B. and Agabiti-Rosei, E. (2017)Non-invasive cardiovascular imaging for evaluating subclinical target organ damage in hypertensive patients: a consensus paper from the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging (EACVI), the European Society of Cardiology Council on Hypertension, and the European Society of Hypertension (ESH).European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging 18, 945-960.
[121] Pham, H.,Robinson-Cohen, C.,Biggs, M. L.,Ix, J. H.,Mukamal, K. J.,Fried, L. F.,Kestenbaum, B.,Siscovick, D. S. and de Boer, I. H. (2012)Chronic kidney disease, insulin resistance, and incident diabetes in older adults.Clinical journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN 7, 588-594.
[122] Pullman, T. N.,Alving, A. S.,Dern, R. J. and Landowne, M. (1954)The Influence of dietary protein intake on specific renal functions in normal man.The Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine 44, 320-332.
[123] Rahhal, M. N.,Gharaibeh, N. E.,Rahimi, L. and Ismail-Beigi, F. (2019)Disturbances in insulin-glucose metabolism in patients with advanced renal disease with and without diabetes.The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 104, 4949-4966
[124] Rebholz, C. M.,Coresh, J.,Grams, M. E.,Steffen, L. M.,Anderson, C. A.,Appel, L. J. and Crews, D. C. (2015)Dietary acid load and incident chronic kidney disease: results from the aric study.American Journal of Nephrology 42, 427-435.
[125] Reboldi, G.,Verdecchia, P.,Fiorucci, G.,Beilin, L. J.,Eguchi, K.,Imai, Y.,Kario, K.,Ohkubo, T.,Pierdomenico, S. D.,Schwartz, J. E.,Wing, L.,Saladini, F. and Palatini, P. (2018)Glomerular hyperfiltration is a predictor of adverse cardiovascular outcomes.Kidney International 93, 195-203.
[126] Rubenfeld, S. and Garber, A. J. (1978)Abnormal carbohydrate metabolism in chronic renal failure. The potential role of accelerated glucose production, increased gluconeogenesis, and impaired glucose disposal.The Journal of Clinical Investigation 62, 20-28.
[127] Rubenfeld, S. and Garber, A. J. (1979)Impact of hemodialysis on the abnormal glucose and alanine kinetics of chronic azotemia.Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental 28, 934-942.
[128] Schmieder, R. E.,Messerli, F. H.,Garavaglia, G. and Nunez, B. (1990)Glomerular hyperfiltration indicates early target organ damage in essential hypertension.JAMA 264, 2775-2780.
[129] Schmitz, O.,Alberti, K. G.,Christensen, N. J.,Hasling, C.,Hjollund, E.,Beck-Nielsen, H. and Orskov, H. (1985)Aspects of glucose homeostasis in uremia as assessed by the hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp technique.Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental 34, 465-473.
[130] Schwartz Sorensen, S.,Eiskjaer, H.,Orskov, H. and Bjerregaard Pedersen, E. (1993)Effect of intravenous glucagon infusion on renal haemodynamics and renal tubular handling of sodium in healthy humans.Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation 53, 25-34.
[131] Schwingshackl, L. and Hoffmann, G. (2014)Comparison of high vs. normal/low protein diets on renal function in subjects without chronic kidney disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.PloS one 9, e97656.
[132] Selvin, E.,Najjar, S. S.,Cornish, T. C. and Halushka, M. K. (2010)A comprehensive histopathological evaluation of vascular medial fibrosis: insights into the pathophysiology of arterial stiffening.Atherosclerosis 208, 69-74.
[133] Sherwin, R. S.,Bastl, C.,Finkelstein, F. O.,Fisher, M.,Black, H.,Hendler, R. and Felig, P. (1976)Influence of uremia and hemodialysis on the turnover and metabolic effects of glucagon.The Journal of Clinical Investigation 57, 722-731.
[134] Shinohara, K.,Shoji, T.,Emoto, M.,Tahara, H.,Koyama, H.,Ishimura, E.,Miki, T.,Tabata, T. and Nishizawa, Y. (2002)Insulin resistance as an independent predictor of cardiovascular mortality in patients with end-stage renal disease.Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN 13, 1894-1900.
[135] Smoyer, W. E.,Brouhard, B. H.,Rassin, D. K. and LaGrone, L. (1991)Enhanced GFR response to oral versus intravenous arginine administration in normal adults.The Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine 118, 166-175.
[136] So, R.,Song, S.,Lee, J. E. and Yoon, H. J. (2016)The association between renal hyperfiltration and the sources of habitual protein intake and dietary acid load in a general population with preserved renal function: the KoGES study.PloS one 11, e0166495.
[137] Solling, K.,Christensen, C. K.,Solling, J.,Christiansen, J. S. and Mogensen, C. E. (1986)Effect on renal haemodynamics, glomerular filtration rate and albumin excretion of high oral protein load.Scandinavian Journal of Clinical And Laboratory Investigation 46, 351-357.
[138] Sorensen, S. S.,Lauridsen, I. N.,Thomsen, K. and Pedersen, E. B. (1991)Effect of two regimens of intravenous amino acid infusion on renal haemodynamics, renal tubular function and sodium and water homeostatic hormones in healthy humans.Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation: Official Publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association 6, 410-419.
[139] Spitz, I. M.,Rubenstein, A. H.,Bersohn, I.,Abrahams, C. and Lowy, C. (1970)Carbohydrate metabolism in renal disease.The Quarterly Journal of Medicine 39, 201-226.
[140] Sun, Z. J.,Yang, Y. C.,Wu, J. S.,Wang, M. C.,Chang, C. J. and Lu, F. H. (2016)Increased risk of glomerular hyperfiltration in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance and newly diagnosed diabetes.Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation: official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association 31, 1295-1301.
[141] ter Wee, P. M.,Geerlings, W.,Rosman, J. B.,Sluiter, W. J.,van der Geest, S. and Donker, A. J. (1985)Testing renal reserve filtration capacity with an amino acid solution.Nephron 41, 193-199.
[142] ter Wee, P. M.,Rosman, J. B.,van der Geest, S.,Sluiter, W. J. and Donker, A. J. (1986)Renal hemodynamics during separate and combined infusion of amino acids and dopamine.Kidney International 29, 870-874.
[143] Tomaszewski, M.,Charchar, F. J.,Maric, C.,McClure, J.,Crawford, L.,Grzeszczak, W.,Sattar, N.,Zukowska-Szczechowska, E. and Dominiczak, A. F. (2007)Glomerular hyperfiltration: a new marker of metabolic risk.Kidney International 71, 816-821.
[144] Tonelli, M.,Klarenbach, S. W.,Lloyd, A. M.,James, M. T.,Bello, A. K.,Manns, B. J. and Hemmelgarn, B. R. (2011)Higher estimated glomerular filtration rates may be associated with increased risk of adverse outcomes, especially with concomitant proteinuria.Kidney International 80, 1306-1314.
[145] Tuttle, K. R.,Puhlman, M. E.,Cooney, S. K. and Short, R. A. (2002)Effects of amino acids and glucagon on renal hemodynamics in type 1 diabetes.American journal of physiology Renal Physiology 282, F103-112.
[146] Van Biesen, W.,De Bacquer, D.,Verbeke, F.,Delanghe, J.,Lameire, N. and Vanholder, R. (2007)The glomerular filtration rate in an apparently healthy population and its relation with cardiovascular mortality during 10 years.European Heart Journal 28, 478-483.
[147] Viberti, G.,Bognetti, E.,Wiseman, M. J.,Dodds, R.,Gross, J. L. and Keen, H. (1987)Effect of protein-restricted diet on renal response to a meat meal in humans.The American Journal of Physiology 253, F388-393.
[148] Wada, L.,Don, B. R. and Schambelan, M. (1991)Hormonal mediators of amino acid-induced glomerular hyperfiltration in humans.The American Journal of Physiology 260, F787-792.
[149] Westervelt, F. B. (1969)Insulin effect in uremia.The Journal of Laboratory And Clinical Medicine 74, 79-84.
[150] Williams, B.,Mancia, G.,Spiering, W.,Agabiti Rosei, E.,Azizi, M.,Burnier, M.,Clement, D. L.,Coca, A.,de Simone, G.,Dominiczak, A.,Kahan, T.,Mahfoud, F.,Redon, J.,Ruilope, L.,Zanchetti, A.,Kerins, M.,Kjeldsen, S. E.,Kreutz, R.,Laurent, S.,Lip, G. Y. H.,McManus, R.,Narkiewicz, K.,Ruschitzka, F.,Schmieder, R. E.,Shlyakhto, E.,Tsioufis, C.,Aboyans, V. and Desormais, I. (2018)2018 ESC/ESH guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension.European Heart Journal 39, 3021-3104.
[151] Wiseman, M. J.,Hunt, R.,Goodwin, A.,Gross, J. L.,Keen, H. and Viberti, G. C. (1987)Dietary composition and renal function in healthy subjects.Nephron 46, 37-42.
[152] Xu, H.,Huang, X.,Arnlov, J.,Cederholm, T.,Stenvinkel, P.,Lindholm, B.,Riserus, U. and Carrero, J. J. (2014)Clinical correlates of insulin sensitivity and its association with mortality among men with CKD stages 3 and 4.Clinical journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN 9, 690-697.
[1] Hai-Fu Zhang, Qin-Xia Zhang, Yuan-Yuan Zhang, Dong Yang, Zhao Xu, Qi-Bin Jiao, Xing-Wei Zhang. Efficacy and safety of left atrial appendage occlusion in atrial fibrillation patients with chronic kidney disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis[J]. Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine, 2020, 21(3): 443-451.
[2] Radwan Al Ali, Davor Vukadinović, Wasim Maziak, Lama Katmeh, Viktoria Schwarz, Felix Mahfoud, Ulrich Laufs, Michael Böhm. Cardiovascular effects of waterpipe smoking: a systematic review and meta-analysis[J]. Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine, 2020, 21(3): 453-468.
[3] Meer Fakhry, Mandeep S. Sidhu, Sripal Bangalore, Roy O. Mathew. Accelerated and intensified calcific atherosclerosis and microvascular dysfunction in patients with chronic kidney disease[J]. Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine, 2020, 21(2): 157-162.
[4] Anthony (Ming-yu) Chuang, Mau T Nguyen, Woon-Man Kung, Sam Lehman, Derek P Chew. High-sensitivity troponin in chronic kidney disease: Considerations in myocardial infarction and beyond[J]. Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine, 2020, 21(2): 191-203.
[5] Megan S. Joseph, Maryse Palardy, Nicole M. Bhave. Management of heart failure in patients with end-stage kidney disease on maintenance dialysis: a practical guide[J]. Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine, 2020, 21(1): 31-39.
[6] Michele Provenzano, Giuseppe Coppolino, Teresa Faga, Carlo Garofalo, Raffaele Serra, Michele Andreucci. Epidemiology of cardiovascular risk in chronic kidney disease patients: the real silent killer[J]. Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine, 2019, 20(4): 209-220.
[7] Shanna J. Hardin, Mahavir Singh, Wintana Eyob, Jack C. Molnar, Rubens P. Homme, Akash K. George, Suresh C. Tyagi. Diet-induced chronic syndrome, metabolically transformed trimethylamine-N-oxide, and the cardiovascular functions[J]. Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine, 2019, 20(3): 121-128.
[8] Wenyan Jiang, Mei Wang. New insights into the immunomodulatory role of exosomes in cardiovascular disease[J]. Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine, 2019, 20(3): 153-160.
[9] Rudaynah A. Alali. A short review of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibitors[J]. Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine, 2019, 20(1): 1-8.
[10] Jennifer G. Robinson, Karol E. Watson. Identifying Patients for Nonstatin Therapy[J]. Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine, 2018, 19(S1): 1-8.
[11] Davide Bolignano, Anna Pisano, Graziella D’Arrigo. Pulmonary hypertension: a neglected risk condition in renal patients?[J]. Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine, 2018, 19(4): 117-121.
[12] Sivakumar Sudhakaran, Teodoro Bottiglieri, Kristen M. Tecson, Aaron Y. Kluger, Peter A. McCullough. Alteration of lipid metabolism in chronic kidney disease, the role of novel antihyperlipidemic agents, and future directions[J]. Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine, 2018, 19(3): 77-88.
[13] Peter A. McCullough, Aaron Y. Kluger, Kristen M. Tecson, Clay M. Barbin, Andy Y. Lee, Edgar V. Lerma, Zachary P. Rosol, Sivan L. Kluger, Janani Rangaswami. Inhibition of the Sodium–Proton Antiporter (Exchanger) is a Plausible Mechanism of Potential Benefit and Harm for Drugs Designed to Block Sodium Glucose Co-transporter 2[J]. Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine, 2018, 19(2): 51-63.
[14] Alberto Palazzuoli, Helen Hashemi, Lauren C. Jameson, Peter A. McCullough. Hyperuricemia and Cardiovascular Disease[J]. Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine, 2017, 18(4): 134-145.
[15] Claudio Ronco, Federico Ronco, Peter A. McCullough. A Call to Action to Develop Integrated Curricula in Cardiorenal Medicine[J]. Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine, 2017, 18(3): 93-99.
No Suggested Reading articles found!