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Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine  2021, Vol. 22 Issue (2): 277-286     DOI: 10.31083/j.rcm2202035
Special Issue: Utilizing Technology in the COVID 19 era
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Thrombotic risk in patients with COVID-19
Edoardo Pancaldi1, †, Greta Pascariello1, †, Giuliana Cimino1, Angelica Cersosimo1, Ludovica Amore1, Fabio Alghisi1, Nicola Bernardi1, Emiliano Calvi1, Carlo Mario Lombardi1, Enrico Vizzardi1, *(), Marco Metra1
1Cardiology Unit, Department of Medical and Surgical Specialities, Radiological Sciences and Public Health, University of Brescia, 23123 Brescia, Italy
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Emerging evidences prove that the ongoing pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is strictly linked to coagulopathy even if pneumonia appears as the major clinical manifestation. The exact incidence of thromboembolic events is largely unknown, so that a relative significant number of studies have been performed in order to explore thrombotic risk in COVID-19 patients. Cytokine storm, mediated by pro-inflammatory interleukins, tumor necrosis factor α and elevated acute phase reactants, is primarily responsible for COVID-19-associated hypercoagulopathy. Also comorbidities, promoting endothelial dysfunction, contribute to a higher thromboembolic risk. In this review we aim to investigate epidemiology and clarify the pathophysiological pathways underlying hypercoagulability in COVID-19 patients, providing indications on the prevention of thromboembolic events in COVID-19. Furthermore we aim to reassume the pathophysiological paths involved in COVID-19 infection.
Key words:  Thrombosis      COVID-19      Pulmonary embolism      Endothelitis      Coagulopathy     
Submitted:  29 November 2020      Revised:  28 March 2021      Accepted:  31 March 2021      Published:  30 June 2021     
*Corresponding Author(s):  Enrico Vizzardi     E-mail:
About author:  These authors contributed equally.

Cite this article: 

Edoardo Pancaldi, Greta Pascariello, Giuliana Cimino, Angelica Cersosimo, Ludovica Amore, Fabio Alghisi, Nicola Bernardi, Emiliano Calvi, Carlo Mario Lombardi, Enrico Vizzardi, Marco Metra. Thrombotic risk in patients with COVID-19. Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine, 2021, 22(2): 277-286.

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