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Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine  2021, Vol. 22 Issue (2): 365-371     DOI: 10.31083/j.rcm2202043
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Cardiac manifestations of COVID-19
Agata Bielecka-Dabrowa1, 2, Anna Cichocka-Radwan2, *(), Joanna Lewek1, 2, Filip Pawliczak1, 2, Marek Maciejewski2, Maciej Banach1, 2
1Department of Preventive Cardiology and Lipidology, Chair of Nephrology and Hypertension, Medical University of Lodz, Rzgowska 281/289, 93-338 Lodz, Poland
2Department of Cardiology and Congenital Diseases of Adults, Heart Failure Unit, Polish Mother's Memorial Hospital Research Institute (PMMHRI), Rzgowska 281/289, 93-338 Lodz, Poland
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COVID-19 is a novel viral infection caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) beta-coronavirus. Epidemiological status changes dynamically as the pandemy is far from ending. Several complications of presented virus may be similar to those observed in other viral infections. Despite lacking data, the heart involvement may be comparable to cardiac complications observed previously in those with SARS as well as Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS). In COVID-19 we observe elevated levels of cardiac biomarkers, such as natriuretic peptides, troponins, myoglobin, C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-2 (IL-2), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and ferritin, which is likely the result of myocardial injury. The possible mechanisms of cardiovascular injury include direct toxicity through the viral invasion of cardiac myocytes, ACE-2 receptor-mediated CV (cardiac and endothelial) injury, microvascular dysfunction and thrombosis and cytokine release syndrome (mainly IL-6 mediated). Cardiac manifestations of COVID-19 are focal or global myocardial inflammation, necrosis, ventricular dysfunction, heart failure and arrhythmia.
Key words:  COVID-19      Coronavirus      SARS-CoV-2      Heart failure      Cardiac manifestations     
Submitted:  14 March 2021      Revised:  19 May 2021      Accepted:  20 May 2021      Published:  30 June 2021     
*Corresponding Author(s):  Anna Cichocka-Radwan     E-mail:

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Agata Bielecka-Dabrowa, Anna Cichocka-Radwan, Joanna Lewek, Filip Pawliczak, Marek Maciejewski, Maciej Banach. Cardiac manifestations of COVID-19. Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine, 2021, 22(2): 365-371.

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