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Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine  2021, Vol. 22 Issue (3): 563-572     DOI: 10.31083/j.rcm2203068
Special Issue: Featured Papers in Cardiovascular Medicine 2021
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Cardionephrology and cardiorenal disease in Italy: state of the art
Luca Di Lullo1, *(), Antonio Bellasi2, Vincenzo Barbera1, Claudio Ronco3
1Department of Nephrology and Dialysis, L. Parodi – Delfino Hospital, 00034 Colleferro, Italy
2Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Ente Ospedaliero Cantonale, 6978 Lugano, Switzerland
3International Renal Research Institute, S. Bortolo Hospital, 36100 Vicenza, Italy
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Abstract:
The interactions and feedback mechanisms involved in heart and renal failure are more complex than previously thought and are grouped under the term "cardio-renal axis". In the last decades, it has always been emphasized that renal dysfunction in patients with heart failure can be attributed exclusively to low renal plasma flow resulting from reduced cardiac output. In the last two decades cardiorenal syndrome has been established to set complex and close interactions between heart and kidney. Cardiologists and nephrologist should interact in their daily clinical practice to provide better patients' management. In this review, we will point out main features of cardiorenal axis and cardiorenal syndrome to shift into specific sets of management in Italy starting by Guyton's hypothesis till present days.
Key words:  Cardiorenal syndrome      Heart failure      Acute kidney injury      Chronic kidney disease      Cardionephrology     
Submitted:  06 July 2021      Revised:  11 August 2021      Accepted:  12 August 2021      Published:  24 September 2021     
*Corresponding Author(s):  Luca Di Lullo     E-mail:  dilulloluca69@gmail.com

Cite this article: 

Luca Di Lullo, Antonio Bellasi, Vincenzo Barbera, Claudio Ronco. Cardionephrology and cardiorenal disease in Italy: state of the art. Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine, 2021, 22(3): 563-572.

URL: 

https://rcm.imrpress.com/EN/10.31083/j.rcm2203068     OR     https://rcm.imrpress.com/EN/Y2021/V22/I3/563

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