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Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine  2021, Vol. 22 Issue (3): 755-768     DOI: 10.31083/j.rcm2203082
Special Issue: Featured Papers in Cardiovascular Medicine 2021
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Pathophysiological mechanisms and clinical evidence of relationship between Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and cardiovascular disease
Raffaele Galiero1, †, Alfredo Caturano1, †, Erica Vetrano1, †, Arturo Cesaro2, 3, Luca Rinaldi1, Teresa Salvatore4, Raffaele Marfella1, Celestino Sardu1, Elisabetta Moscarella2, 3, Felice Gragnano2, 3, Paolo Calabrò2, 3, Ferdinando Carlo Sasso1, *()
1Department of Advanced Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Campania Luigi Vanvitelli, I-80138 Naples, Italy
2Department of Translational Medical Sciences, University of Campania Luigi Vanvitelli, I-80138 Naples, Italy
3Division of Cardiology, A.O.R.N. "Sant'Anna & San Sebastiano", I-81100 Caserta, Italy
4Department of Precision Medicine, University of Campania Luigi Vanvitelli, I-80138 Naples, Italy
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Abstract:
Evidence suggests a close connection between Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) and increased cardiovascular (CV) risk. Several cross-sectional studies report that NAFLD is related to preclinical atherosclerotic damage, and to coronary, cerebral and peripheral vascular events. Similar results have been showed by prospective studies and also by meta-analyzes on observational studies. The pathophysiological mechanisms of NAFLD are related to insulin resistance, which causes a dysfunction in adipokine production, especially adiponectin, from adipose tissue. A proinflammatory state and an increase in oxidative stress, due to increased reacting oxygen species (ROS) formation with consequent oxidation of free fatty acids and increased de novo lipogenesis with accumulation of triglycerides, are observed. These mechanisms may have an impact on atherosclerotic plaque formation and progression, and they can lead to increased cardiovascular risk in subjects with NAFLD. This review extensively discusses and comments current and developing NAFLD therapies and their possible impact on cardiovascular outcome.
Key words:  NAFLD      Cardiovascular disease      Pathophysiology      Type 2 diabetes      Cardiovascular risk     
Submitted:  06 August 2021      Revised:  06 September 2021      Accepted:  09 September 2021      Published:  24 September 2021     
*Corresponding Author(s):  Ferdinando Carlo Sasso     E-mail:  ferdinandocarlo.sasso@unicampania.it
About author:  These authors contributed equally.

Cite this article: 

Raffaele Galiero, Alfredo Caturano, Erica Vetrano, Arturo Cesaro, Luca Rinaldi, Teresa Salvatore, Raffaele Marfella, Celestino Sardu, Elisabetta Moscarella, Felice Gragnano, Paolo Calabrò, Ferdinando Carlo Sasso. Pathophysiological mechanisms and clinical evidence of relationship between Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and cardiovascular disease. Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine, 2021, 22(3): 755-768.

URL: 

https://rcm.imrpress.com/EN/10.31083/j.rcm2203082     OR     https://rcm.imrpress.com/EN/Y2021/V22/I3/755

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