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Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine  2021, Vol. 22 Issue (3): 787-797     DOI: 10.31083/j.rcm2203085
Special Issue: Coronary Artery Atherosclerosis: Translation from Basic to Clinic
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Trimethylamine N-oxide—a marker for atherosclerotic vascular disease
Guinan Xie1, †, An Yan1, †, Peng Lin2, Yi Wang1, *(), Liping Guo3, *()
1Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 301617 Tianjin, China
2Graduate School, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 301617 Tianjin, China
3Department of Cardiology, Tianjin Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine Affiliated Hospital, 300120 Tianjin, China
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Abstract:
As a potential causative factor in various cardiovascular diseases, the gut microbe-generated metabolite trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) has courted considerable research interest as a potential biomarker. TMAO is a small molecule considered to be beneficial for the health of deep-water animals due to its ability to protect proteins against hydrostatic pressure stress. However, it may cause deleterious effects in humans as mounting evidence suggests that TMAO may enhance atherosclerosis, independent of traditional risk factors. This may be mediated by its capacity to enhance inflammation, platelet activation and thrombosis, and inhibit reverse cholesterol transport. In humans, circulating levels of TMAO have been found to be associated with increased risk of developing atherosclerotic diseases such as carotid atherosclerosis, coronary atherosclerotic heart disease, stroke, and peripheral arteriosclerosis. This review aims to discuss the current role of TMAO in the atherosclerosis process, using animal models and clinical studies, with special attention to determining whether TMAO could be used as a marker for monitoring severity and prognosis in atherosclerosis and to evaluate evidence for its role as a mediator in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic vascular disease.
Key words:  Atherosclerosis      Trimethylamine N-oxide      Coronary heart disease      Cardiovascular risk     
Submitted:  08 July 2021      Revised:  02 August 2021      Accepted:  06 August 2021      Published:  24 September 2021     
Fund: 
2020YJSB196/Tianjin Postgraduate Research and Innovation Project
*Corresponding Author(s):  wangyi@tjutcm.edu.cn (Yi Wang); lpgtjn@163.com (Liping Guo)   
About author:  These authors contributed equally.

Cite this article: 

Guinan Xie, An Yan, Peng Lin, Yi Wang, Liping Guo. Trimethylamine N-oxide—a marker for atherosclerotic vascular disease. Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine, 2021, 22(3): 787-797.

URL: 

https://rcm.imrpress.com/EN/10.31083/j.rcm2203085     OR     https://rcm.imrpress.com/EN/Y2021/V22/I3/787

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