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Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine  2021, Vol. 22 Issue (3): 835-843     DOI: 10.31083/j.rcm2203089
Special Issue: Diet, nutrients and cardiovascular disease prevention
Systematic Review Previous articles | Next articles
Apple or apple polyphenol consumption improves cardiovascular disease risk factors: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Xiaoqing Zhu1, †, Guanhua Xu1, †, Wangyan Jin1, Yingying Gu1, Xuhua Huang1, Lidan Ge2, *()
1Department of Critical Medicine, The First People's Hospital of Xiaoshan District, 311200 Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China
2Department of Geriatrics, The First People's Hospital of Xiaoshan District, 311200 Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China
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Abstract:
Many fruits and vegetables have been found to have a protective effect against cardiovascular diseases. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the relationship between apple or apple polyphenol intake and cardiovascular disease risk. The PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, and Web of Science databases were searched up to August 4, 2020. Studies that had an intervention time of >1 week; used apple or apple polyphenols as the intervention; were designed as a randomized controlled trial; and measured blood pressure, cholesterol, and blood glucose levels were included. The meta-analysis showed that the group with apple or apple polyphenol intake had significantly higher high-density lipoprotein levels (standardized mean difference [SMD] = 0.34, 95% confidence interval [CI] [0.01, 0.67], p = 0.0411, I2 = 77%, random-effects model) and significantly lower C-reactive protein levels (SMD = –0.43, 95% CI [–0.65, –0.20], p = 0.0002, I2 = 18%, fixed-effects model) than the control group, indicating that the intervention reduced the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Apple or apple polyphenol intake is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases. These results are consistent with the old saying that eating an apple a day can help keep the doctors away.
Key words:  Apples      Apple polyphenols      Cardiovascular disease      Blood pressure      Cholesterol level      Blood glucose level     
Submitted:  20 April 2021      Revised:  29 June 2021      Accepted:  06 July 2021      Published:  24 September 2021     
*Corresponding Author(s):  Lidan Ge     E-mail:  gelidan0571@126.com
About author:  These authors contributed equally.

Cite this article: 

Xiaoqing Zhu, Guanhua Xu, Wangyan Jin, Yingying Gu, Xuhua Huang, Lidan Ge. Apple or apple polyphenol consumption improves cardiovascular disease risk factors: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine, 2021, 22(3): 835-843.

URL: 

https://rcm.imrpress.com/EN/10.31083/j.rcm2203089     OR     https://rcm.imrpress.com/EN/Y2021/V22/I3/835

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