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Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine  2017, Vol. 18 Issue (1): 14-20     DOI: 10.3909/ricm0857
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The Role of Nitrates in the Management of Stable Ischemic Heart Disease: A Review of the Current Evidence and Guidelines
Mehul A. Pragani1, Karan P. Desai2, Doralisa Morrone3, Mandeep S. Sidhu1, William E. Boden4
1 Department of Medicine, Albany Stratton Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Albany Medical Center and Albany Medical College, Albany, NY
2 Department of Internal Medicine, Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center and Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD
3 Cardiovascular Medicine Division, Cardio-Thoracic & Vascular Department, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy
4 VA New England Healthcare System, Massachusetts, Veterans Epidemiology, Research, and Informatics Center (Maveric), Boston, MA
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Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of mortality in the United States and can result in significant morbidity. In particular, stable ischemic heart disease (SIHD) is a condition that affects nearly 9 million individuals in the United States alone, with substantial annual health care costs related to recurrent medical visits and chronic disease management. Nitrates form a cornerstone of SIHD management by reducing myocardial oxygen consumption and increasing exercise capacity by several mechanisms, including increasing epicardial blood flow through vasodilation and decreased vascular resistance, blunting coronary steal, and reducing preload. Yet the role of nitrates may be underappreciated in clinical practice and their utilization may be limited due to concerns of tolerance to treatment, a lack of randomized data validating their ability to prevent adverse cardiovascular events, and the pervasive use of percutaneous interventions without robust attempts at implementing optimal medical therapy. In this review, we discuss both the recent ACC/AHA/ACP/AATS/PCNA/SCAI/STS and European Society of Cardiology guidelines, with a particular focus on indications, contraindications, and future directions of nitrate therapy in SIHD.
Key words:  Angina      Coronary artery disease      Stable ischemic heart disease      Nitrates     

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Mehul A. Pragani, Karan P. Desai, Doralisa Morrone, Mandeep S. Sidhu, William E. Boden. The Role of Nitrates in the Management of Stable Ischemic Heart Disease: A Review of the Current Evidence and Guidelines. Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine, 2017, 18(1): 14-20.

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