|A Call to Action to Develop Integrated Curricula in Cardiorenal Medicine
|Claudio Ronco1, 2, Federico Ronco3, Peter A. McCullough4
|1 Department of Nephrology, San Bortolo Hospital, Vicenza, Italy
2 International Renal Research Institute of Vicenza, San Bortolo Hospital, Vicenza, Italy
3 Interventional Cardiology, Ospedali Dell'angelo e SS Giovanni e Paolo, Venice, Italy
4 Baylor University Medical Center, Baylor Heart and Vascular Hospital, Baylor Heart and Vascular Institute, Dallas, TX
With the adoption of the new definition and classification of cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) and its relevant subtypes, much attention has been placed on elucidating the mechanisms of heart and kidney interactions. The pathophysiologic pathways are of great interest by which acute heart failure may result in acute kidney injury (AKI; type 1), chronic heart failure accelerates the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD; type 2), AKI provokes cardiac events (type 3), and CKD increases the risk and severity of cardiovascular disease (type 4). A remarkable interest has also been placed on the acute and chronic systemic conditions, such as sepsis and diabetes, that simultaneously affect heart and kidney function (type 5). Furthermore, the physiology of acute and chronic heart-kidney crosstalk is drawing attention to hemodynamics (fluids, pressures, flows, resistances, perfusion), physiochemical (electrolytes, pH, toxins) and biologic (inflammation, immune system activation, neurohormonal signals) processes. Common clinical scenarios call for recognition, knowledge, and skill in managing CRS. There is a clear need for medical and surgical specialists who are well versed in the pathophysiology and clinical manifestations that arise in the setting of CRS. With this editorial, we make a call to action to encourage universities, medical schools, and teaching hospitals to create a core curriculum for cardiorenal medicine to better equip the physicians of the future for these common, serious, and frequently fatal syndromes.
Published: 30 September 2017
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