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Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine  2019, Vol. 20 Issue (4): 255-262     DOI: 10.31083/j.rcm.2019.04.565
Systematic Review Previous articles | Next articles
Cardiac and vascular causes of persistent fever: A systematic review
Shi-Min Yuan1, *()
1 Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, The First Hospital of Putian, Teaching Hospital, Fujian Medical University, Putian 351100, Fujian Province, P. R. China
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Fever of unknown origin refers to a prolonged fever with an unknown cause despite adequate medical evaluations. This condition often leads to unnecessary extensive laboratory work-ups and antimicrobial therapies. The atypical presentations often cause a delayed diagnosis and an improper treatment with an increased morbidity rate. In cardiac surgical patients, fever of unknown origin remains an intriguing problem during the diagnostic process of cardiac surgical diseases. Cardiac myxoma or aortic dissection are often misdiagnosed when patients present with fever of unknown origin as an onset symptom. Under such circumstances, medical examinations by echocardiography and chest computed tomography, particularly fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography, have been proved crucial for early diagnosis. A better understanding of the clinical features of cardiac surgical disorders presenting with fever of unknown origin would facilitate early diagnosis of fever of unknown origin. A further decision-making of prompt treatment of choices of a cardiac operation is important for improving patients’ outcomes.

Key words:  Cardiac surgical procedures      delayed diagnosis      fever of unknown origin     
Submitted:  17 September 2019      Accepted:  13 November 2019      Published:  30 December 2019     
*Corresponding Author(s):  Shi-Min Yuan     E-mail:

Cite this article: 

Shi-Min Yuan. Cardiac and vascular causes of persistent fever: A systematic review. Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine, 2019, 20(4): 255-262.

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Figure 1.  A flow chart showing the suggested diagnostic work-up for a case of fever of unknown origin in cardiac patients.

Figure 2.  The diagram of the screening and management protocols of fever of unknown origin in cardiac surgery. FUO: fever of unknown origin; PE: pulmonary embolism.

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