Special Issues

Special Issue Title: Diet, nutrients and cardiovascular disease prevention 

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· Deadline for manuscript submissions:  1 November 2021



Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor


        Prof. Demosthenes B Panagiotakos

        Harokopio University, Athens

Website | E-Mail

Interests: Cardiovascular epidemiology; Risk modelling - risk analysis; Nutritional epidemiology and multivariate analysis



        Dr. Matina Kouvari

        Harokopio University, Athens

Website | E-Mail

Interests: Cardiovascular epidemiology; Risk modelling - risk analysis; Nutritional epidemiology and multivariate analysis


Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,


Among all behaviors, nutrition makes the largest contribution to cardiovascular disease morbidity across Europe. This Special Issue “Diet, nutrients and cardiovascular disease prevention” should shed light on the association between various nutrition aspects on the basis of nutrients, dietary patterns (a priori or a posteriori defined) or dietary behaviors and the prevention of cardiovascular diseases or relevant cardiometabolic risk factors.

Appropriate dietary regimen is a wellbeing cornerstone to prevent degenerative disorders. The relationship between nutrition and cardiovascular diseases has been extensively investigated. Mediterranean diet stands among the most discussed dietary patterns in the cardiovascular disease prevention spectrum. However, dietetics is quite a dynamic field. For instance, inconsistencies still exist regarding the role of dairy products or red meat on cardiac health, the protective or neutral effect of vitamin D as well as issues around the concept of chrononutrition. Current areas of interest include new dietetic strategies to prevent disease progression/onset such as fasting, personalised nutrition, gene–diet interactions, novel methods of nutritional assessment, as well as patient and physician education to achieve better compliance. 

In conclusion, further research is highly encouraged to inform guidelines and appropriately prioritize national public health policies in line with the most updated knowledge. Thereby, this Special Issue should review all aspects concerning effective nutrition-related plans on this field as well as the underlying mechanisms behind them in order to ameliorate the primary prevention strategies of cardiometabolic disorders.


Prof. Demosthenes B Panagiotakos and Dr. Matina Kouvari

Guest Editors

 

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at https://rcm.imrpress.org by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a double-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by IMR Press.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is $1950. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English.


Keywords

Cardiovascular disease; Heart disease; Coronary heart disease; Metabolic syndrome; Nutrition; Dietary patterns; Plant-based diets; Mediterranean diet; Food groups; Macronutrients; Micronutrients; Weight management; Primary prevention; Disease progression


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Prognostic nutritional index as a marker of mortality: an observational cohort study of patients undergoing cardiac surgery
Arif Gucu, Ozlem Arican Ozluk, Sadik Ahmet Sunbul, Mesut Engin, Ibrahim Burak Seker, Ayse Sunbul
Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine    2021, 22 (2): 499-503.   DOI: 10.31083/j.rcm2202057
Abstract162)   HTML22)    PDF(pc) (188KB)(215)       Save
Nutritional problem of the patient is a valuable stiuation in patients undergoing surgery. In this study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between prognostic nutritional index (PNI) and postoperative in-mortality in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. 1003 patients undergoing on-pump cardiac surgery in our hospital between January 2016–January 2020 were included in this study retrospectively. Patients were divided into two groups based on in-hospital mortality, as survivors (Group I, n = 934) and non-survivors (Group II, n = 69). Their preoperative nutritional status was determined using the PNI. Compared to survivors, non-survivors were found to have a significantly higher mean age (62.5 ± 10.8 vs. 67.45 ± 10.1, P < 0.001) and significantly lower mean preoperative ejection fraction (51.6 ± 0.3 vs. 44.5 ± 1.2, P < 0.001). And combined cardiac surgery rate was significantly higher in non-survivors (P = 0.009). Also non-survivors had a significantly lower mean PNI compared to survivors (44.76 ± 7.63 vs. 48.34 ± 6.71, P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis Model 1 revealed that age (Odds ratio (OR): 1.756; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.250–3.790, P = 0.029), intra-aortic balloon pump usage (OR: 2.252, 95% CI: 1.885–6.194, P < 0.001), combined cardiac surgery (OR: 0.542, 95% CI: 0.428–0.690, P = 0.041) and the PNI (OR: 0.639, 95% CI: 0.552–0.874, P = 0.021) were independent predictors of mortality. In Model 2, age >70 (OR: 2.437, 95% CI: 1.983–5.390, P = 0.005), LVEF <35% (OR: 1.945, 95% CI: 1.586–3.492, P = 0.012), IABP usage (OR: 1.365, 95% CI: 1.109–2.196, P = 0.001) and PNI (OR: 0.538, 95% CI: 0.492–0.791, P = 0.033) were determined as independent predictors for mortality. In on-pump cardiac surgery, postoperative mortality is significantly associated with preoperative low PNI, and PNI can be a useful and suitable parameter for preoperative risk evaluation.
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Dyslipidemia in pediatrician's practice
Alla V. Burlutskaya, Victoria E. Tril, Lily V. Polischuk, Vladimir M. Pokrovskii
Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine    2021, 22 (3): 817-834.   DOI: 10.31083/j.rcm2203088
Abstract172)   HTML20)    PDF(pc) (511KB)(325)       Save
Atherosclerosis ranks first among cardiovascular system diseases. It is the "disease of the century", and more than 50% of people with circulatory pathology die of it. The clinical manifestation of atherosclerosis is observed at the middle and older ages, but it is known that the pathological process develops much earlier. There has been a clear trend in theoretical and practical cardiology in recent years to study the earliest atherogenic markers. Epidemiological, clinical, and morphological studies have proved the presence in children and adolescents of sexual, endogenous, exogenous, primary, and potentiating risk factors contributing to an early formation of a pathogenic foundation for atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. Disorders of lipid metabolism – dyslipidemias are attributed to the most significant risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. The DLP prevalence in the pediatric population is extremely high. According to the results of conducted global studies, lipid metabolism disorders occur in more than 70% of children and adolescents. It causes the need for timely diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive measures. The need to extrapolate the risk factor concept to childhood age is justified by several reasons, the main of which include the broadest spread of atherosclerosis that has become a global pandemic, genetic determinism, and low variability of the lipid spectrum of blood serum: the levels of lipids and lipoproteins discovered in childhood are stable throughout life and have an independent prognostic value. That is why the most practical significance is inherent to the study of lipid and lipoprotein metabolism, starting in the early periods of lipid and lipoprotein ontogenesis. Since risk factors can be identified at the preclinical stage of the atherosclerotic process, dyslipidemia phenotyping will facilitate identifying children and adolescents at risk of developing cardiovascular pathologies in the future. The study objective is to examine the pathophysiological aspects of lipid and lipoprotein metabolism and examine DLP epidemiology – as the leading atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk factor in children and adolescents, DLP classification, modern approaches to DLP diagnosis and management.
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Apple or apple polyphenol consumption improves cardiovascular disease risk factors: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Xiaoqing Zhu, Guanhua Xu, Wangyan Jin, Yingying Gu, Xuhua Huang, Lidan Ge
Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine    2021, 22 (3): 835-843.   DOI: 10.31083/j.rcm2203089
Abstract223)   HTML24)    PDF(pc) (3395KB)(291)       Save
Many fruits and vegetables have been found to have a protective effect against cardiovascular diseases. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the relationship between apple or apple polyphenol intake and cardiovascular disease risk. The PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, and Web of Science databases were searched up to August 4, 2020. Studies that had an intervention time of >1 week; used apple or apple polyphenols as the intervention; were designed as a randomized controlled trial; and measured blood pressure, cholesterol, and blood glucose levels were included. The meta-analysis showed that the group with apple or apple polyphenol intake had significantly higher high-density lipoprotein levels (standardized mean difference [SMD] = 0.34, 95% confidence interval [CI] [0.01, 0.67], p = 0.0411, I2 = 77%, random-effects model) and significantly lower C-reactive protein levels (SMD = –0.43, 95% CI [–0.65, –0.20], p = 0.0002, I2 = 18%, fixed-effects model) than the control group, indicating that the intervention reduced the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Apple or apple polyphenol intake is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases. These results are consistent with the old saying that eating an apple a day can help keep the doctors away.
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Serum endothelin-1 level positively correlates with waist and hip circumferences in stable coronary artery disease patients
Anggoro Budi Hartopo, Jajah Fachiroh, Ira Puspitawati, Fatwa Sari Tetra Dewi
Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine    2021, 22 (3): 919-924.   DOI: 10.31083/j.rcm2203099
Abstract180)   HTML18)    PDF(pc) (187KB)(169)       Save
Central obesity is associated with increased level and activity of endothelin-1. The waist and hip circumferences are simple indicators of central obesity. Waist circumference correlates with visceral adiposity, whereas hip circumference associates with gluteofemoral peripheral adiposity. Both measurements have independent and opposite correlation with coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factors. The relation between serum endothelin-1 in stable CAD and both parameters of central obesityneeds to be investigated. This study aims to examine the correlation between serum endothelin-1 level and waist and hip circumferences as parameters of central obesity in patients with stable CAD. This was a cross-sectional study. Consecutive subjects were enrolled among those who underwent elective coronary angiography with significant CAD. Serum endothelin-1 was measured from peripheral blood samples taken before coronary angiography procedure. The measurement of waist circumference, hip circumference, and ratio derived from them, was performed. Central obesity was determined by waist circumference cut-off for Indonesian population. The correlation analysis was performed with Pearson test. The multivariate analysis was performed with multiple linear regression test. The comparison of serum endothelin-1 level between groups was performed with Student T test. We enrolled 50 subjects. The majority of subjects was male (80.0%), hypertensive (86.0%), dyslipidemic (68%) and smoker (52%). Most subjects had history of acute coronary syndrome (64%). Mean waist circumference was 87.6 +/– SD cm, hip circumference was 95.3 cm +/– SD, mean waist-to-hip ratio was 0.92 +/– SD and mean waist-to-height ratio was 0.54 +/– SD. Central obesity occurred in 32% of subjects. Mean serum endothelin-1 level was 2.2 ± 0.7 pg/mL. Serum endothelin-1 level tended to be higher in subjects with central obesity as compared to those without. Serum endothelin-1 level was significantly correlated with age, hemoglobin level, waist circumference (coefficient of 0.311, p value = 0.023) and hip circumference (coefficient of 0.359, p value = 0.010). Multivariable analysis indicated that age (coefficient of –0.353, p value = 0.007) and hip circumference (coefficient of 0.335, p value = 0.011) were independently correlated with serum endothelin-1. For conclusion, in patients with stable CAD, serum endothelin-1 was positively correlated with both waist circumference and hip circumference. Hip circumference independently and positively correlated with serum endothelin-1 level.
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The comparison between the effects of aspirin and clopidogrel monotherapy on postoperative bleeding in diabetic patients after off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery
Levent Altınay, Erdem Çetin
Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine    2021, 22 (3): 975-981.   DOI: 10.31083/j.rcm2203106
Abstract108)   HTML13)    PDF(pc) (2049KB)(186)       Save
There is limited data about the bleeding complication of antiplatelet therapy after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) operations focused on diabetic patients. Herein, we aimed to evaluate the effects of aspirin and clopidogrel monotherapies on postoperative bleeding in these patients. A total of 165 diabetic patients who underwent isolated off-pump beating heart coronary artery bypass (OPCAB) operation were evaluated, 84 patients were included in this retrospective study. Patients were divided into groups according to the type of antiplatelet regime. Chest tube drainage amounts and the amount of blood product transfusions were evaluated. Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) - group included 42 aspirin monotherapy and Clopidogrel - group included 42 clopidogrel monotherapy patients after propensity matching. The mean drainage amount in ASA - group was 670.24 ± 185.46 mL, in Clopidogrel - group was 921.43 ± 167.53 mL (p < 0.001). More packed red blood cell (PRBC) and fresh frozen plasma (FFP) units were needed in the Clopidogrel - group than in the ASA - group (2.05 ± 1.13 vs. 0.83 ± 0.93 units of PRBC, and 1.90 ± 0.58 vs. 1.05 ± 0.58 units of FFP, respectively, p < 0.001). In conclusion, clopidogrel had a stronger effect on bleeding in diabetic patients than aspirin after OPCAB surgery.
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The association between serum uric acid levels and 10-year cardiovascular disease incidence: results from the ATTICA prospective study
Niki Katsiki, Matina Kouvari, Demosthenes B Panagiotakos, Claudio Borghi, Christina Chrysohoou, Dimitri P Mikhailidis, Christos Pitsavos
Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine    2021, 22 (3): 991-1001.   DOI: 10.31083/j.rcm2203108
Abstract95)   HTML17)    PDF(pc) (854KB)(170)       Save

Limited data suggests possible gender-specific association between serum uric acid (SUA) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence. The aim of the present analysis was to evaluate the association between SUA levels and 10-year CVD incidence (2002–2012) in the ATTICA study participants. Overall, 1687 apparently healthy volunteers, with SUA measurements, residing in the greater metropolitan Athens area (Greece), were included. Multivariable Cox-regression models were used to estimate the hazard ratios for SUA in relation to 10-year CVD incidence. Receiver operating curve analysis was conducted to detect optimal SUA cut-off values. Participants in the 2nd and 3rd SUA tertile had 29 and 73% higher 10-year CVD incidence compared with those in the 1st tertile (p < 0.001). In gender-specific analysis, only in women SUA was independently associated with CVD incidence; women in the 3rd SUA tertile had 79% greater 10-year CVD event risk compared to their 1st tertile counterparts. Obese in the 3rd SUA tertile had 2-times higher CVD incidence compared to those in the 1st tertile. Similar findings were observed in metabolically healthy (vs. unhealthy) and metabolically healthy obese. SUA thresholds best predicting 10-year CVD incidence was 5.05 and 4.15 mg/dL (0.30 and 0.25 mmol/L) in men and women, respectively. In conclusion, increased SUA levels were independently related to 10-year CVD event rate in women, obese and metabolically healthy individuals. SUA could predict 10-year CVD incidence even at low levels. Further studies are warranted to identify SUA cut-off values that may improve the detection of individuals at higher CVD risk in clinical practice.

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