#### Special Issues

Special Issue Title: New Frontiers in Cardiac Surgery: Biomarkers and Treatment

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor

 Assoc. Prof. Dr. Carmela Rita Balistreri Department of BioMedicine, Neuroscience, and Advanced Diagnostics (Bi.N.D.), University of Palermo, Corso Tukory, 211, 90134 Palermo, Italy

Interests: Aging; Longevity; Inflammation; Study of age-related diseases (i.e., cardiovascular diseases and cancer); Vascular aging and endothelial dysfunction; Stem cell therapy; Study of endothelial progenitor cells; Translational personalized medicine; Anti-aging medicine

 Prof. Calogera Pisano Department of Surgical Science Cardiac Surgery Unit Tor Vergata University, Viale Oxford, 8,00133 Rome, Italy

Interests: Cardiac surgery; Biomarkers in cardiac surgery; Minimally invasive surgery; Marfan syndrome

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Cardiac surgery has evolved in the approaches and strategies in the last years. Accordingly, remarkable innovations in terms of treatments are proposing and applying. Among these, the minimally invasive surgery, and the catheter -based intervention, such as mitral clip implantation, transcatheter aortic valve implantation, transapical mitral valve repair and replacement, are becoming the very objects of interest of clinicians. In addition of this, several evolving techniques and surgical prosthesis have also enriched the surgical armamentarium. Beside new biomarkers have been discovered thanks to identification of cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in cardiovascular diseases, and suggested as potential diagnostic and prognostic tools to optimize the surgical indications of different cardiac surgery pathologies. Consequently, a close interplay between researchers and clinicians can make a difference in upgrading of surgical studies by providing expertise and higher quality for applying new technologies, improving the management of cardiac pathologies with the help of a solid support from the lab analyses, modern recommendations, and algorithms, as well as for investigating “surgical questions”. A harmonious collaboration between researchers and the team of a cardiac surgery unit with several women as components can be the winning key. The clinicians can identify the medical needs and priorities, the researchers can provide the knowledge of the disease’ s mechanisms, the involved pathways, and benefits in the use of related biomarkers and targets for improving management and achieving personal therapies, and “new ideas”. This can lead to propose and test new solutions for the health and the life quality of patients. A new frontier of this close collaboration is, for example, the application of regenerative medicine for cardiac tissue and structure, including gene and cell therapies.  Finally the application of gender medicine can also help to identify accurate biomarkers according to gender, facilitating a differential cardiac disease management. Accordingly, the impact of gender differences in cardiac pathophysiology has been widely demonstrated. In this issue, all these aspects will be described and discussed, as well as potential limitations and future directions in this incipient field.

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Carmela Rita Balistreri and Prof. Calogera Pisano

Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at https://rcm.imrpress.org by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a double-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the page. Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by IMR Press.

Please visit thepage before submitting a manuscript. The for publication in this open access journal is \$1950. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English.

Keywords

Cardiac Diseases; New Surgical Approches; New Blood and Byoptic Biomarkers of Cardiac Diseases; Anti-ageing Medicine in Cardiac Diseases; Stem Cell Therapy; Gene Therapy; New Multiomics Profiles; Gender Medicine

 Select Predictive potential of biomarkers and risk scores for major adverse cardiac events in elderly patients undergoing major elective vascular surgery Velimir S. Perić, Mladjan D. Golubović, Milan V. Lazarević, Tomislav L. Kostić, Dragana S. Stokanović, Miodrag N. Đorđević, Vesna G. Marjanović, Marija D. Stošić, Dragan J. Milić Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine    2021, 22 (3): 1053-1062.   DOI: 10.31083/j.rcm2203115 Abstract （106）   HTML （11）    PDF（pc） （1350KB）（90）       Save Elderly patients scheduled for major elective vascular surgery are at high risk for a major adverse cardiac events (MACE). The objectives of the study were: (1) To determine the individual discriminatory ability of four risk prediction models and four biomarkers in predicting MACEs in elderly patients undergoing major elective vascular surgery; (2) to find a prognostic model with the best characteristics; (3) to examine the significance of all preoperative parameters; and (4) to determine optimal cut-off values for biomarkers with best predictor capabilities. We enrolled 144 geriatric patients, aged 69.97 $\pm{}$ 3.73 years, with a 2:1 male to female ratio. Essential inclusion criteria were open major vascular surgery and age $>$65 years. The primary outcome was the appearance of MACEs within 6 months. These were noted in 33 (22.9%) patients. The most frequent cardiac event was decompensated heart failure, which occurred in 22 patients (15.3%). New onset atrial fibrillation was registered in 13 patients (9%), and both myocardial infarction and ventricular arrhythmias occurred in eight patients each (5.5%). Excellent discriminatory ability (AUC $>$0.8) was observed for all biomarker combinations that included the N-terminal fragment of pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP). The most predictive two-variable combination was the Geriatric-Sensitive Cardiac Risk Index (GSCRI) + NT-proBNP (AUC of 0.830 with a 95% confidence interval). Female gender, previous coronary artery disease, and NT-proBNP were three independent predictors in a multivariate model of binary logistic regression. The Cox regression multivariate model identified high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and NT-proBNP as the only two independent predictors.